Kombiadou, K., Costas, S., Carrasco, A.R., Plomaritis, T.A., Ferreira, Ó., Matias, A. (2020a). Bridging the gap between resilience and geomorphology of complex coastal systems. Earth-Science Reviews, 198, 102934, https://doi.org/10.1016/J. EARSCIREV.201
Kombiadou, K., Costas, S., Carrasco, A.R., Plomaritis, T.A., Ferreira, Ó., Matias, A.
Resilience has been used over a wide range of scientific fields and often ambiguously, causing confusion over terminology and concepts and giving rise to distinct interpretations and misconceptions, even within the same scientific discipline. Starting by providing clarifications and definitions of the main terminology and key principles of ecological resilience theory, we pass on to expressing them through geomorphic dimensions of barrier islands. Three distinct environments (beach, dune, marsh) are proposed as the panarchical levels of analysis, along with potential feedbacks between them and geomorphic dimensions that can express the changes of the stability landscape. Morphological changes induced by storms and subsequent recovery are transferred to stability landscapes, over a range of storm impacts and recovery. We postulate that post-perturbation recovery should not be restricted to regaining pre-disturbance barrier dimensions, but should be viewed in terms of reorganisation and adaptation, accounting for maintaining the existence of functions, or the ability of the system to regain them. The proposed scheme and dimensions are tested using geomorphological data from barrier response to distinct disturbances, over different temporal scales that range from event to multi-decadal ones. The case of a barrier island migrating landwards is conceptualised in terms of alternative states and thresholds arising during the process and related phases and changes to the adaptive cycle. The methodology and approach presented is a step towards more holistic views of geomorphic systems' resilience that we hope will contribute to furthering interdisciplinary understanding and cooperation in the area of sustainability and resilience of natural systems.