Changes in protein expression in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis dietarily exposed to PVP/PEI coated silver nanoparticles at different seasons
Nerea Duroudier, Câtia Cardoso, Kahina Mehennaoui, Mathilde Mikolaczyk, Jörg Schäfer, Arno C.Gutleb, Laure Giamberini, Maria J.Bebianno, Eider Bilbao, Miren P.Cajaraville
Potential toxic effects of Ag NPs ingested through the food web and depending on the season have not been addressed in marine bivalves. This work aimed to assess differences in protein expression in the digestive gland of female mussels after dietary exposure to Ag NPs in autumn and spring. Mussels were fed daily with microalgae previously exposed for 24 h to 10 μg/L of PVP/PEI coated 5 nm Ag NPs. After 21 days, mussels significantly accumulated Ag in both seasons and Ag NPs were found within digestive gland cells and gills. Two-dimensional electrophoresis distinguished 104 differentially expressed protein spots in autumn and 142 in spring. Among them, chitinase like protein-3, partial and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, that are involved in amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, carbon metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and the biosynthesis of amino acids KEGG pathways, were overexpressed in autumn but underexpressed in spring. In autumn, pyruvate metabolism, citrate cycle, cysteine and methionine metabolism and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism were altered, while in spring, proteins related to the formation of phagosomes and hydrogen peroxide metabolism were differentially expressed. Overall, protein expression signatures depended on season and Ag NPs exposure, suggesting that season significantly influences responses of mussels to NP exposure.