de los Santos, C. B., Lahuna, F., Silva, A., Freitas, C., Martins, M., Carrasco, A. R., & Santos, R. (2022). Vertical intertidal variation of organic matter stocks and patterns of sediment deposition in a mesotidal coastal wetland. Estuarine, Coastal and

De los Santos, C. B., Lahuna, F., Silva, A., Freitas, C., Martins, M., Carrasco, A. R., & Santos, R.

Tidal coastal wetlands, common home to seagrass and salt marshes, are relevant carbon sinks due to their high capacity to accumulate and store organic carbon in their sediments. Recent studies demonstrated that the spatial variability of this organic carbon within the same wetland system can be significant. Some of the environmental drivers of this spatial variability remain understudied and the selection of the most relevant ones can be context dependent. Here we investigated the role of bed elevation, hydrodynamics, and habitat type (salt marsh and seagrass) on the organic matter (OM) net deposition-resuspension rate and superficial sedimentary stocks (top 5 cm) at the tidal wetlands of the Ria Formosa, a mesotidal coastal lagoon in South Portugal. Results showed that two vectors of spatial variation need to be considered to describe the intertidal sedimentary OM stocks: the bed elevation that imposes a decrease of the hydroperiod and thus the change of habitat from the lower seagrass Z. noltei to the upper saltmarsh S. maritimus, and the horizontal spatial variation along the secondary channels of the lagoon that imposes a decrease in the current flow velocity magnitude. The multiple linear regression analyses, using data from 40 sampling points, explained 59% of the variation of the superficial sedimentary stocks of OM in salt marshes and seagrasses of the Ria Formosa lagoon and revealed that stocks generally decrease with elevation, yet with variation among sites and habitats. It was also found that the decrease of the OM net deposition-resuspension rate with bed elevation was exponential. Our study emphasizes the importance of considering multiple environmental drivers and spatial variation for regional estimations of organic matter (and organic carbon) sedimentary stocks in coastal wetlands.

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ECSS.2022.107896

Duarte, B., Teixeira, C. M., Martins, I., Engelen, A. H., Costa, R. L., Adams, J. B., Bebianno, M. J., Melo, R. A., & Fonseca, V. F. (2022). Editorial: Emerging Topics in Coastal and Transitional Ecosystems: Science, Literacy, and Innovation. Frontiers in

Duarte, B., Teixeira, C. M., Martins, I., Engelen, A. H., Costa, R. L., Adams, J. B., Bebianno, M. J., Melo, R. A., & Fonseca, V. F. (2022). Editorial: Emerging Topics in Coastal and Transitional Ecosystems: Science, Literacy, and Innovation. Frontiers in Marine Science, 0, 1158.

The digitalization of cultural routes and virtual storytelling has emerged as a way of showcasing to individuals the heritage of different cultural universes. Regarding this fractional environment, and as a by-product of the international EU funded iHERITAGE project, (B_A.2.1_0056), the goal is to create, through an innovation-driven growth process and technological transfer, brand strategies for the affirmation and better knowledge of intangible realities in the Mediterranean region. The Sicilian Tourism Department in Italy is the project’s lead beneficiary, with representative partners throughout six Mediterranean countries (Italy, Egypt, Spain, Jordan, Lebanon, Portugal). The case study in Portugal is being developed in Tavira, through the intangible cultural heritage of the Mediterranean diet. The research based on the cultural experience, the history of the landscape and the sense of identity and continuity of knowledge is reassigned into a digital platform—the creation of apps and, within this, the design of a virtual route that navigates key geographical places. These apps will later revolve around one of the cultural elements of the Mediterranean, namely, the olive oil activity, with a detailed presentation of the manufacturing process, as well as its didactic interpretation and dissemination about the protection and conservation of Mediterranean research. The methodological approach is developed through the analysis and interpretation of a detailed list of references, fieldwork in a plurality of sites, contextual inquiries and interviews. As a powerful tool for internet marketing and research, these apps will reinforce identity, hospitality and tourism enterprises connected through the virtual itinerary, allowing a closer interaction between tourists and locals, endorsing the rise of technological development, as well as to drastically reduce environmental and ecological risks.
 

Rosa, A., Cravo, A., Jacob, J., & Correia, C. (2022). Water quality of a southwest Iberian coastal lagoon: Spatial and temporal variability. Continental Shelf Research, 245(June), 104804

Rosa, A., Cravo, A., Jacob, J., & Correia, C.

The present work aims to characterize Ria Formosa water quality considering its spatial, and temporal variability at two scales: short-term (among seasons) and long-term to evaluate its evolution over the past 40 years, by comparing six historical datasets with data obtained in this study. To attain these goals, four field surveys under different seasons and/or weather conditions were conducted between 2017 and 2019 at seven sites along the Ria Formosa, covering the water bodies specified for this system. In situ measurements (temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen) and water sampling for determination of nutrients, chlorophyll a and suspended solids were taken every 2 h at each site, during complete semidiurnal tidal cycles. Moreover, these data were complemented with in situ data acquired at a high frequency (every 15 min) by a real time observational station deployed at an inner area, close to a main channel, where the anthropogenic pressure is more intense. Data analysis clearly depict a spatial variability pattern along the Ria Formosa, as well as a temporal heterogeneity, influenced by the contribution of precipitation, sediments, wind and water exchanges with the adjacent ocean. Between sampling sites, the lowest variability of water quality parameters occurred at the boundary coastal station, at the main inlet, in permanent connection with the ocean, while the maximum variability was found at both the lagoon edges, mainly due to the shallowness of the water column. Temporally, the highest concentrations of nutrients were obtained during the Wet/rainy conditions survey, under the influence of runoff. The lowest concentrations of nutrients were attained during the Summer, except for phosphate, due to consumption by phytoplankton. Although the sampling frequency along time has been limited, Ria Formosa water quality data from the last 40 years shows a decreasing trend in nutrients concentration and a marginal increase of dissolved oxygen, suggesting a water quality improvement over time, in contrast with other coastal lagoons that are showing a water quality deterioration due to an increasing anthropogenic pressure. Altogether, these are relevant aspects to consider regarding Ria Formosa present and future management, including climate change and anthropogenic pressures susceptibility assessment and to use them within an international context by comparison with other similar systems.

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CSR.2022.104804

Garzon, J. L., Ferreira, Ó., & Plomaritis, T. A. (2022). Modeling of Coastal Erosion in Exposed and Groin-Protected Steep Beaches. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 148(6), 04022018

Garzon, J. L., Ferreira, Ó., & Plomaritis, T. A.

Process-based models are suitable tools for reproducing storm-driven erosion. However, their performance has been mainly examined on mild-slope sandy beaches and their use on steep beaches still represents a challenge. Here, open-source process-based model XBeach experiments were combined with topographical measurements collected for two storms (16- and 5-year return period) to obtain a reliable model. The model parameters “facua” (parameterized wave asymmetry and skewness sediment transport component), “bermslope” (upslope transport term for semireflective beaches), and “wetslope” (critical avalanching submerged slope) were utilized for calibration and validation. The 16-year storm simulations on an exposed beach revealed that whether bermslope increased and “facua” must be reduced, and vice versa, to properly simulate erosion. Adding bermslope provided excellent results for these storms when using facua and wetslope values close to the recommended values. In a groin-protected site, XBeach was successfully calibrated and validated for the tested storms using these parameters, although with different values. These experiments demonstrated that the appropriate use of these parameters can satisfactorily simulate morphological changes on steep beaches for different hydrodynamic conditions and coastal settings (exposed and groin protected).

Modeling of Coastal Erosion in Exposed and Groin-Protected Steep Beaches | Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering | Vol 148, No 6 (ascelibrary.org)

Lima, M. J., Relvas, P., & Barbosa, A. B. (2022). Variability patterns and phenology of harmful phytoplankton blooms off southern Portugal: Looking for region-specific environmental drivers and predictors. Harmful Algae, 116, 102254.

Lima, M. J., Relvas, P., & Barbosa, A. B.

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) negatively impact coastal ecosystems, fisheries, and human health, and their prediction has become imperative for effective coastal management. This study aimed to evaluate spatial-temporal variability patterns and phenology for key toxigenic phytoplankton species off southern Portugal, during a 6-year period, and identify region-specific environmental drivers and predictors. Total abundance of species responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning (Pseudo-nitzschia spp.), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (Dinophysis spp.), and paralytic shellfish poisoning (G. catenatum) were retrieved, from the National Bivalve Mollusk Monitoring System public database. Contemporaneous environmental variables were acquired from satellite remote sensing, model-derived data, and in situ observations, and generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to explore the functional relationships between HABs and environmental variables and identify region-specific predictors. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. showed a bimodal annual cycle for most coastal production areas, with spring and summer maxima, reflecting the increase in light intensity during the mixed layer shoaling stage, and the later stimulatory effects of upwelling events, with a higher bloom frequency over coastal areas subjected to stronger upwelling intensity. Dinophysis spp. exhibited a unimodal annual cycle, with spring/summer maxima associated with stratified conditions, that typically promote dinoflagellates. Dinophysis spp. blooms were delayed with respect to Pseudo-nitzschia spp. spring blooms, and followed by Pseudo-nitzschia spp. summer blooms, probably reflecting upwelling-relaxation cycles. G. catenatum occurred occasionally, namely in areas more influenced by river discharges, under weaker upwelling. Statistical-empirical models (GAMs) explained 7-8%, and 21−54% of the variability in Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Dinophysis spp., respectively. Overall, a set of four easily accessible environmental variables, surface photosynthetically available radiation, mixed layer depth, sea surface temperature, and chlorophyll-a concentration, emerged as the most influential predictors. Additionally, over the coastal production areas along the south coast, river discharges exerted minor negative effects on both HAB groups. Despite evidence supporting the role of upwelling intensity as an environmental driver of Pseudo-nitzschia spp., it was not identified as a relevant model predictor. Future model developments, such as the inclusion of additional environmental variables, and the implementation of species- and period-specific, and hybrid modelling approaches, may further support HAB operational forecasting and managing over complex coastal domains.

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.HAL.2022.102254

Encarnação, J., Krug, L. A., Teodósio, M. A., & Morais, P. (2022). Coastal Countercurrents Increase Propagule Pressure of an Aquatic Invasive Species to an Area Where Previous Introductions Failed. Estuaries and Coasts, 1, 1–15

 Encarnação, J., Krug, L. A., Teodósio, M. A., & Morais, P.

The establishment of many non-indigenous species is primarily controlled by propagule pressure, local environmental conditions, and biological interactions. An introduction is doomed to fail if any one of these factors is unsuitable. A few Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 specimens have been collected along a limited stretch of the central Portuguese coast since the late 1970s, but a viable population was never detected. However, starting in 2016, a population of the Atlantic blue crab has established and expanded along the southern Portuguese coast. The objective of the present study was to provide insights into the invasion of the Atlantic blue crab in Portugal based on unpublished museum collection records and new records made by citizen scientists on the western coast and to provide a mechanistic explanation for the recent expansion based on observational oceanography data. Citizen science records along with observational oceanography data from 2019 and 2020 suggest that the southern Portugal population is expanding towards the western coast due to warmer coastal countercurrent events that form in the Gulf of Cadiz during the reproductive period of the Atlantic blue crab (summer–early fall). This oceanographic feature facilitates the transport of larvae towards the western coast of Portugal, which increases propagule pressure, while estuaries along the southwestern coast may serve as stepping stones supporting the northwards expansion of the species in tandem with increasing sea temperature. This study also highlights the value of citizen science in detecting the range expansion of invasive species over wide geographical areas.

Coastal Countercurrents Increase Propagule Pressure of an Aquatic Invasive Species to an Area Where Previous Introductions Failed | Request PDF (researchgate.net)

Takyi, R., El Mahrad, B., Nunoo, F. K. E., Adade, R., ElHadary, M., & Essandoh, J. (2022). Adaptive management of environmental challenges in West African coastal lagoons. Science of The Total Environment, 838, 156234

Takyi, R., El Mahrad, B., Nunoo, F. K. E., Adade, R., ElHadary, M., & Essandoh, J.

Human activities in coastal lagoons over several decades have had a significant impact on their ecology and the valuable ecosystem services they provide. Although there are several management approaches to mitigate the problem, they are unable to link human needs and activities with changes in the state of the environment. This research provides this link via assessment of eleven lagoons in Ghana with a socio-ecological framework (Drivers (D), Activities (A), Pressure (P), State (S), Impact (I) on welfare (W), and Response (R) as a Measure (M); DAPSI(W)R(M)). Data were systematically obtained from relevant publications, previously conducted research, and national reports on the subject and were analyzed using this socio-ecological framework. Results show that basic biological and physiological needs such as food and shelter, social status and dominance, financial self-reliance, and self-actualization are the drivers of fishing, farming, settlements, salt mining, mangrove harvesting, industries, among others. These activities have contributed to pressures of selective extraction of fish and mangroves species, the introduction of heavy metals, organic materials, and smothering of substrates, consequently altering the environment by decreasing the oxygen rate and increasing the biochemical oxygen demand, organic matter, nutrients and pathogens, and reduction in lagoon areas and biodiversity. Thus, ultimately impacting human welfare, such as loss of revenue, employment, and seafood provision. Management options, including addressing the building and fuelwood material sources, afforestation and community ownership of lagoons, the prohibition of construction activities, and research-led management that can support decision-makers to improve the sustainability of these ecosystems, are highlighted. The findings have global implications for guiding local planners and state regulators in the applications of such integrated environmental management.

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2022.156234

Luis Malvar, J., Juan, ·, Santos, L., Martín, J., Aparicio, I., Tainá, ·, Fonseca, G., Bebianno, M. J., & Alonso, E. (2022). Ultrasound-assisted extraction as an easy-to-perform analytical methodology for monitoring ibuprofen and its main metabolites in m

Luis Malvar, J., Juan, ·, Santos, L., Martín, J., Aparicio, I., Tainá, ·, Fonseca, G., Bebianno, M. J., & Alonso, E.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to be the main pharmaceutical class accumulated in seafood. Among them, ibuprofen (IBU) is of special concern as it is used worldwide to treat common pain, does not require a medical prescription, it is often taken in a high daily dose, and has been reported to cause potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms. IBU is highly transformed into hydroxy- and carboxy-metabolites and/or degradation products generated not only after its administration but also during wastewater treatment or in the environment. These compounds can be present in the environment at higher concentrations than IBU and present higher toxicity. In this work, a low-cost and affordable routine analytical method was developed and validated for the first-time determination of IBU and its main metabolites in mussels. The method is based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), clean-up by dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) and analytical determination by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Box-Behnken experimental design was used for method optimisation to better evaluate the influence and interactions of UAE and d-SPE variables. Extraction recoveries were in the range from 81 to 115%. Precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was lower than 7%. Method detection limits were in the range from 0.1 to 1.9 ng g−1 dry weight. The method was successfully applied to wild mussels.

https://doi.org/10.1007/S00216-022-04153-W

Weaver, P. P. E., Aguzzi, J., Boschen-Rose, R. E., Colaço, A., de Stigter, H., Gollner, S., Haeckel, M., Hauton, C., Helmons, R., Jones, D. O. B., Lily, H., Mestre, N. C., Mohn, C., & Thomsen, L. (2022). Assessing plume impacts caused by polymetallic nodu

Weaver, P. P. E., Aguzzi, J., Boschen-Rose, R. E., Colaço, A., de Stigter, H., Gollner, S., Haeckel, M., Hauton, C., Helmons, R., Jones, D. O. B., Lily, H., Mestre, N. C., Mohn, C., & Thomsen, L.

Deep-sea mining may be just a few years away and yet society is struggling to assess the positive aspects, such as increasing the supply of metals for battery production to fuel the green revolution, versus the potentially large environmental impacts. Mining of polymetallic (manganese) nodules from the deep ocean is likely to be the first mineral resource targeted and will involve direct impacts to hundreds of km2 of seabed per mine per year. However, the mining activity will also cause the generation of large sediment plumes that will spread away from the mine site and have both immediate and long-term effects over much wider areas. We discuss what the impacts of plumes generated near the seabed by mining vehicles may be and how they might be measured in such challenging environments. Several different mining vehicles are under development around the world and depending on their design some may create larger plumes than others. We discuss how these vehicles could be compared so that better engineering designs could be selected and to encourage innovation in dealing with plume generation and spread. These considerations will aid the International Seabed Authority (ISA) that has the task of regulating mining activities in much of the deep sea in its commitment to promote the Best Available Technology (BAT) and Best Environmental Practice (BEP).

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MARPOL.2022.105011

Cravo, A., Silva, S., Rodrigues, J., Cardoso, V. V., Benoliel, M. J., Correia, C., Coelho, M. R., Rosa, M. J., & Almeida, C. M. M. (2022). Understanding the bioaccumulation of pharmaceutical active compounds by clams Ruditapes decussatus exposed to a UWW

Cravo, A., Silva, S., Rodrigues, J., Cardoso, V. V., Benoliel, M. J., Correia, C., Coelho, M. R., Rosa, M. J., & Almeida, C. M. M. 

Twenty-four pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) were evaluated in the soft tissues of clams Ruditappes decussatus exposed along a 1.5-km dispersal gradient of the treated effluent from an urban wastewater treatment plant discharging in Ria Formosa, and compared with those in the marine waters and discharged effluents. The clams were exposed for 1 month, in June–July 2016, 2017 and 2018. PhACs were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method (clams) or solid-phase extraction (water samples). The most representative PhACs in the effluents and receiving waters (regardless of the tidal dilution effect) were diclofenac, carbamazepine and caffeine (on average ≤ 2 μg/L) and only caffeine exhibited significant inter-annual differences, with higher values in 2017. In turn, the most bioaccumulated PhACs in clams were caffeine (0.54–27 ng/g wet weight, significantly higher in 2016) and acetaminophen (0.37–3.7 ng/g wet weight, significant lower in 2016). A multivariate principal component analysis showed (i) PhAC bioaccumulation primarily depended on biotic factors (clams length and weight), (ii) PhAC physicochemical properties Log Kow, pKa and water solubility interplaying with water abiotic variables were more relevant for explaining data variability in water than the physical dilution/tidal mixing, (iii) this process, reflected by the salinity gradient, had a tertiary role in data variation, responsible for spatial discrimination of marine waters. This study provides a better understanding of PhACs bioaccumulation by clams Ruditapes decussatus in real environmental conditions, under the influence of urban treated effluent dispersal in Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, a major producer of bivalves, ultimately disentangling key factors of PhAC bioaccumulation.

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENVRES.2021.112632

Talavera, L., Costas, S., & Ferreira, Ó. (2022). A new index to assess the state of dune vegetation derived from true colour images. Ecological Indicators, 137, 108770

Talavera, L., Costas, S., & Ferreira, Ó.

Vegetation on coastal dunes is a key element, as it promotes the growth and stabilization of these landforms while contributing significantly to biodiversity. Physical (e.g. impact of storms), ecological (e.g. animal grazing) and human-related (e.g. farming and recreation) factors may disturb coastal dune vegetation, changing dune dynamics and eventually inducing ecogeomorphic state shifts. Therefore, understanding vegetation dynamics and state turns crucial to predict dune evolution paths. The latter must be supported by observations combined with the development of tools (e.g. indexes) able to detect eventual changes and to automatically categorize the state of the vegetation. Here, a multi-step index to characterise the dune vegetation state (DUVES) was developed and tested in Barreta Island (South Portugal), where grey dune vegetation has declined in recent years. The index was computed using classified true colour orthophotos and orthomosaics derived from UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) surveys. Google Earth images were used as complementary data to analyse the evolution trends. The possible sources of disturbance (i.e. human-related activities and gull occupation) were also investigated by comparing their distribution with the vegetation changes. DUVES successfully identified different states of vegetation cover that expressed its stability, perturbation or growth based on temporal changes and allowed the analysis of their evolutionary trends. The distribution of perturbation was mostly associated with gull nesting areas, increasing over time, and to a less extent to human-related activities. The observed grey dune habitat loss was due to replacement of plants typical from this habitat by ruderal species promoted by the positive feedback established between gulls and vegetation. The developed index proved to be of great utility to define dune habitat evolution and understand the associated drivers, being a tool with a wide range of applications, namely for improving future coastal management actions aimed at conserving dune habitats. Moreover, DUVES is potentially transferable due to its easy adaptability depending on the particularities of each study site or goal.

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ECOLIND.2022.108770

Tu, C., Ma, H., Li, Y., Fu, C., You, Z. J., Newton, A., & Luo, Y. (2022). Transdisciplinary, Co-Designed and Adaptive Management for the Sustainable Development of Rongcheng, a Coastal City in China in the Context of Human Activities and Climate Change. F

Tu, C., Ma, H., Li, Y., Fu, C., You, Z. J., Newton, A., & Luo, Y.

Half the population of China live in coastal zones where 70% of large cities are also located. Intensive human activities pose significant environmental and ecological hazards to these cities that are already vulnerable to natural hazards and climate change. The sustainable development of coastal cities is thus both a national and international issue. Rongcheng is a typical coastal city in east China. It is a national marine ranch demonstration area that is subjected to multi-stressors from human activities and climate change. The dominant economic sectors include aquaculture and fisheries, agriculture, shipping and tourism. A multitude of resulting pressures come mainly from intensified human activities, such as intensive aquaculture, overfishing, industrial pollutants, agricultural runoff, land reclamation and port expansion. In addition, Rongcheng is also facing exogenic pressures from extreme climate events such as intensified storms, storm surges, droughts and sea ice. A growing awareness of these problems brought together a trans-disciplinary group from local government, research institutions, local practitioners and coastal representatives to jointly explore and co-design adaptive coastal management options. In this transdisciplinary study, a social-ecological analysis based on a combination of the Systems Approach Framework and the Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses framework was used to analyze and formulate an adaptive management plan for the sustainability of Rongcheng. More than 40 stakeholders including government, companies, civil society and institutions participated in the study through questionnaires and on-site meetings. A statistical analysis of the results identified urgent issues impeding the sustainable development of Rongcheng. The issues identified were poorly regulated aquaculture, loss of shoreline, and the decline of seagrass and cultural heritage. The study identified management options and measures, some of which were adopted by the local government in a co-designed management plan. The measures included upgrading of aquaculture industry, habitat conservation and restoration, and the development of cultural tourism. Another outcome was the increased knowledge exchange between stakeholders to inform management, policy, and decision making, as well as raised awareness of vulnerability to natural hazards and climate change. The success of this case study provides a reference for the adaptive management of other coastal cities and their sustainable development in a changing climate.

Frontiers | Transdisciplinary, Co-Designed and Adaptive Management for the Sustainable Development of Rongcheng, a Coastal City in China in the Context of Human Activities and Climate Change (frontiersin.org)

Talavera, L., Costas, S., & Ferreira, Ó. (2022). A new index to assess the state of dune vegetation derived from true colour images. Ecological Indicators, 137, 108770

Talavera, L., Costas, S., & Ferreira, Ó.

Vegetation on coastal dunes is a key element, as it promotes the growth and stabilization of these landforms while contributing significantly to biodiversity. Physical (e.g. impact of storms), ecological (e.g. animal grazing) and human-related (e.g. farming and recreation) factors may disturb coastal dune vegetation, changing dune dynamics and eventually inducing ecogeomorphic state shifts. Therefore, understanding vegetation dynamics and state turns crucial to predict dune evolution paths. The latter must be supported by observations combined with the development of tools (e.g. indexes) able to detect eventual changes and to automatically categorize the state of the vegetation. Here, a multi-step index to characterise the dune vegetation state (DUVES) was developed and tested in Barreta Island (South Portugal), where grey dune vegetation has declined in recent years. The index was computed using classified true colour orthophotos and orthomosaics derived from UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) surveys. Google Earth images were used as complementary data to analyse the evolution trends. The possible sources of disturbance (i.e. human-related activities and gull occupation) were also investigated by comparing their distribution with the vegetation changes. DUVES successfully identified different states of vegetation cover that expressed its stability, perturbation or growth based on temporal changes and allowed the analysis of their evolutionary trends. The distribution of perturbation was mostly associated with gull nesting areas, increasing over time, and to a less extent to human-related activities. The observed grey dune habitat loss was due to replacement of plants typical from this habitat by ruderal species promoted by the positive feedback established between gulls and vegetation. The developed index proved to be of great utility to define dune habitat evolution and understand the associated drivers, being a tool with a wide range of applications, namely for improving future coastal management actions aimed at conserving dune habitats. Moreover, DUVES is potentially transferable due to its easy adaptability depending on the particularities of each study site or goal.

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ECOLIND.2022.108770

Garzon, J. L., Costas, S., & Ferreira, O. (2022). Biotic and abiotic factors governing dune response to storm events. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 47(4), 1013–1031

 Garzon, J. L., Costas, S., & Ferreira, O.

 The alongshore response of dunes to storm events can be extremely variable and, consequently, their capacity to maintain their services, including the protection of hinterland communities. In this study, the role of biotic and abiotic factors determining the magnitude of dune retreat driven by a severe storm along a 60 km barrier island system was investigated. Data from high-resolution satellite imagery, digital terrain models, and wave propagation models were used in this assessment. The assessed abiotic factors included the backshore volume, dune height, downdrift inlet distance, and incident wave power. The evaluated biotic factor was the vegetation cover, characterized by a vegetation index retrieved from the multispectral imagery. The results revealed large alongshore variability on dune retreat, ranging from negligible impact to ca. 40 m of retreat. All combined factors allowed us to explain up to 70% of the dune retreat variability through a multi-regression analysis. Among all investigated factors, the major contributor controlling the magnitude of dune retreat was the backshore volume (more robust berms reduced the retreat) followed by the wave power (normal and longitudinal components). Moreover, the removal of local salient features in the dune line caused the straightening of the coastline, highly contributing to the development of dune retreat hotspots. The other evaluated factors had a smaller influence on reducing coastal retreat, including the vegetation, whose contribution to dune protection was around one order of magnitude lower than that provided by the backshore volume. The results highlight the importance of regional assessments to understand the causes behind the large alongshore variability of storm impacts at dunes. They also state the relatively low influence of the vegetation from this climatic region to enhance dune resistance to storms.

https://doi.org/10.1002/ESP.5300

Danchenko, S., Dodge, J. D., Icely, J. D., & Newton, A. (2022). Dinoflagellate Assemblages in the West Iberian Upwelling Region (Sagres, Portugal) During 1994–2001. Frontiers in Marine Science, 9, 215.

Danchenko, S., Dodge, J. D., Icely, J. D., & Newton, A.

Changes in the composition of dinoflagellates from 1994 to 2001 at a station influenced by wind-induced seasonal upwelling off SW Portugal were analyzed in relation to oceanography. 194 taxa of dinoflagellates were detected, the most frequent belonged to the genera Tripos, Protoperidinium, Dinophysis, Diplopsalopsis, Prorocentrum and Lingulodinium. The composition of dinoflagellate communities followed a seasonal pattern, in association with oceanographic forcing and change of upwelling conditions. Harmful species such as Dinophysis acuminata, D. acuta, D. caudata, Gonyaulax spp. and Lingulodinium polyedra were found to develop during the upwelling season, typically comprising summer and early autumn in the West Iberian upwelling system, and also occasionally in the conditions following upwelling events in other seasons.

Frontiers | Dinoflagellate Assemblages in the West Iberian Upwelling Region (Sagres, Portugal) During 1994–2001 (frontiersin.org)

Figueroa-Alfaro, R. W., van Rooijen, A., Garzon, J. L., Evans, M., & Harris, A. (2022). Modelling wave attenuation by saltmarsh using satellite-derived vegetation properties. Ecological Engineering, 176, 106528.

Figueroa-Alfaro, R. W., van Rooijen, A., Garzon, J. L., Evans, M., & Harris, A.

Saltmarshes are increasingly recognised an important asset in coastal management as they dissipate wave energy and thus reduce the potential for coastal flooding. The frontal surface area (FSA) and the drag coefficient (Cd) are parameters commonly used in wave attenuation models to express the resistance of vegetation structure to incident waves. The FSA of vegetation represents the vertical surface area facing incoming waves which is calculated as the product of height, diameter and density whereas Cd is often used as tunable parameter that represents the vegetation-wave interactions that relies on both vegetation properties and wave conditions. Despite their importance in numerical modelling, substantial uncertainty remains in obtaining these parameters in the field due to the time-intensive and relatively expensive nature of data collection. An alternative structural vegetation parameter that can be included in wave attenuation models is the leaf area index (LAI). The primary advantage of the LAI is that it can be readily derived from satellite imagery, and thus provides a low-cost, fast alternative to field data collection. However, to date, its incorporation in widely-used coastal engineering models is lacking. The aim of this paper is to verify the use of remote-sensed LAI in numerical wave models as an alternative to FSA. Here, the widely used XBeach model for simulating storm impacts on a range of coastal systems is applied to two open coast sites with extensive saltmarsh; Chesapeake Bay, USA, and Brancaster, UK. To assess the performance of wave attenuation modelling using both methods, we compared the use of remote-sensed LAI from satellite imagery and field-based FSA as inputs into the model. The LAI-based model provides similar levels of accuracy as the FSA-based model. Likewise, higher uncertainties related to plant height, diameter, and density were found in the FSA-based model than in the LAI-based model. Therefore, the LAI-based model provides the advantage of a low-cost and fast method to accurately estimate and predict wave attenuation by vegetation using numerical models such as XBeach. Our practical application in the Brancaster site exemplifies an easy and fast approach to obtaining structural parameters of saltmarsh vegetation and estimating wave attenuation between natural and artificial saltmarshes as well as between seasons.

Modelling wave attenuation by saltmarsh using satellite-derived vegetation properties — the UWA Profiles and Research Repository

The timing of the Ellesmerian Orogeny in Svalbard: A review

Jean-Baptiste P. Koehl., John E. A. Marshall., Gilda Lopes.

In the Late Devonian–earliest Mississippian, Svalbard was affected by a short-lived episode of deformation named the Ellesmerian (Svalbardian) Orogeny. This event resulted in intense folding and thrusting in Devonian sedimentary successions. Deformation stopped prior to the deposition of Carboniferous–Permian sedimentary strata of the Billefjorden and Gipsdalen groups, which lie unconformably over folded Devonian strata. Later on, presumed Ellesmerian structures were reworked during Eurekan tectonism in the early Cenozoic and partly eroded. At present, record of Ellesmerian deformation is only preserved in narrow N–S-trending belts in central–northern, western and southern Spitsbergen. Despite extensive field studies, the timing of the Ellesmerian Orogeny is poorly constrained, and remains a matter of debate in places because of conflicting ages and because of the complex tectonic history of Svalbard. The present contribution aims at reviewing and discussing all available age constraints for Ellesmerian tectonism in Svalbard, which has great implications for the plate tectonic reconstructions of Arctic regions and for the tectonic history of Svalbard.

https://se.copernicus.org/preprints/se-2022-14/

Blount, T. R., Carrasco, A. R., Cristina, S., & Silvestri, S. (2022). Exploring open-source multispectral satellite remote sensing as a tool to map long-term evolution of salt marsh shorelines. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 266, 107664

Blount, T. R., Carrasco, A. R., Cristina, S., & Silvestri, S.

From an ecological and socio-economic perspective, salt marshes are one of the most valuable natural assets on Earth. As external pressures are causing their extensive degradation and loss globally, the ability to monitor salt marshes on a long-term scale and identify drivers of change is essential for their conservation. Remote sensing has been demonstrated to be one of the most adept methods for this purpose and open-source multispectral satellite remote sensing missions have the potential to provide worldwide long-term time-series coverage that is non-cost-prohibitive. This study derives the long-term lateral evolution of four salt marsh patches in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon (Portugal) using data from the Sentinel-2 and Landsat missions as well as from aerial photography surveys to quantitatively examine the accuracy and associated uncertainty in using open-source multispectral satellite remote sensing for this purpose. The results show that these open-source satellite archives can be a useful tool for tracking long-term salt marsh extent dynamics. During 1976–2020, there was a net loss of salt marsh in the study area, with erosion rates reaching an average of −3.3 m/yr opposite a tidal inlet. The main source of error in the satellite results was the dataset spatial resolution limits, but the specific salt marsh shoreline environment contributed to the relative magnitude of that error. The study notes the influence of eco-geomorphological dynamics on the mapping of sedimentary environments, so far not extensively discussed in scientific literature, highlighting the difference between mapping a morphological process and a sedimentary environment.

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ECSS.2021.107664

 

Blount, T. R., Carrasco, A. R., Cristina, S., & Silvestri, S. (2022). Exploring open-source multispectral satellite remote sensing as a tool to map long-term evolution of salt marsh shorelines. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 266, 107664

Blount, T. R., Carrasco, A. R., Cristina, S., & Silvestri, S.

From an ecological and socio-economic perspective, salt marshes are one of the most valuable natural assets on Earth. As external pressures are causing their extensive degradation and loss globally, the ability to monitor salt marshes on a long-term scale and identify drivers of change is essential for their conservation. Remote sensing has been demonstrated to be one of the most adept methods for this purpose and open-source multispectral satellite remote sensing missions have the potential to provide worldwide long-term time-series coverage that is non-cost-prohibitive. This study derives the long-term lateral evolution of four salt marsh patches in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon (Portugal) using data from the Sentinel-2 and Landsat missions as well as from aerial photography surveys to quantitatively examine the accuracy and associated uncertainty in using open-source multispectral satellite remote sensing for this purpose. The results show that these open-source satellite archives can be a useful tool for tracking long-term salt marsh extent dynamics. During 1976–2020, there was a net loss of salt marsh in the study area, with erosion rates reaching an average of −3.3 m/yr opposite a tidal inlet. The main source of error in the satellite results was the dataset spatial resolution limits, but the specific salt marsh shoreline environment contributed to the relative magnitude of that error. The study notes the influence of eco-geomorphological dynamics on the mapping of sedimentary environments, so far not extensively discussed in scientific literature, highlighting the difference between mapping a morphological process and a sedimentary environment.

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ECSS.2021.107664

Gonçalves, A. R., Dorsch, L. L. P., & Figueiredo, M. (2022). Digital Tourism: An Alternative View on Cultural Intangible Heritage and Sustainability in Tavira, Portugal. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14(5)

Gonçalves, A. R., Dorsch, L. L. P., & Figueiredo, M.

The digitalization of cultural routes and virtual storytelling has emerged as a way of showcasing to individuals the heritage of different cultural universes. Regarding this fractional environment, and as a by-product of the international EU funded iHERITAGE project, (B_A.2.1_0056), the goal is to create, through an innovation-driven growth process and technological transfer, brand strategies for the affirmation and better knowledge of intangible realities in the Mediterranean region. The Sicilian Tourism Department in Italy is the project’s lead beneficiary, with representative partners throughout six Mediterranean countries (Italy, Egypt, Spain, Jordan, Lebanon, Portugal). The case study in Portugal is being developed in Tavira, through the intangible cultural heritage of the Mediterranean diet. The research based on the cultural experience, the history of the landscape and the sense of identity and continuity of knowledge is reassigned into a digital platform—the creation of apps and, within this, the design of a virtual route that navigates key geographical places. These apps will later revolve around one of the cultural elements of the Mediterranean, namely, the olive oil activity, with a detailed presentation of the manufacturing process, as well as its didactic interpretation and dissemination about the protection and conservation of Mediterranean research. The methodological approach is developed through the analysis and interpretation of a detailed list of references, fieldwork in a plurality of sites, contextual inquiries and interviews. As a powerful tool for internet marketing and research, these apps will reinforce identity, hospitality and tourism enterprises connected through the virtual itinerary, allowing a closer interaction between tourists and locals, endorsing the rise of technological development, as well as to drastically reduce environmental and ecological risks.

https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052912

Derabli, B., Nancib, A., Nancib, N., Aníbal, J., Raposo, S., Rodrigues, B., & Boudrant, J. (2022). Opuntia ficus indica waste as a cost effective carbon source for lactic acid production by Lactobacillus plantarum. Food Chemistry, 370, 131005

Derabli, B., Nancib, A., Nancib, N., Aníbal, J., Raposo, S., Rodrigues, B., & Boudrant, J.

Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) waste was evaluated as a fermentation feedstock for lactic acid production using Lactobacillus plantarum.Dilute acid pretreatment of the OFI cladodes (OFIC) was performed for extracting maximum fermentable sugars by optimizing process parameters using statistical optimization method. The best results were obtained with HCl 1% (v/v), temperature 120 °C, residence time 40 min, granulation 350 µm and substrate loading 5% (w/v), the sugar concentration reached 24 g/L with low concentration of hydroxymethylfurfural. The feasibility of producing lactic acid from OFI fruit peel (OFIFP) as a source of carbon was also investigated. Lactobacillus plantarum was shown to have a capacity for lactic acid production from OFIC350 (granulation 350 µm) hydrolysate and OFIFP extract without detoxification. The highest lactic acid yields of 0.46 and 0.78 g/g were obtained from enzymatic hydrolysate of pretreated OFIC350 and OFIFP extract, respectively.

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FOODCHEM.2021.131005

Pacheco, A., Monteiro, J., Santos, J., Sequeira, C., & Nunes, J. (2022). Energy transition process and community engagement on geographic islands: The case of Culatra Island (Ria Formosa, Portugal). Renewable Energy, 184, 700–711

Pacheco, A., Monteiro, J., Santos, J., Sequeira, C., & Nunes, J.

Islands have the potential to be precursors in the transition to clean energy, by adopting new technologies and applying innovative solutions that can serve as showcases at an international level. This paper is a contribution towards understating the importance of community engagement on energy transition processes. It covers multiple aspects of a green transition process, including technical, environmental, social, and economic issues. Starting by a participatory diagnosis process, the community of a small island located in Portugal (Culatra Island, Algarve), was challenged to lead the transition process and define different pillars of energy transition. The process brought together local authorities, academia, citizens and companies. Using practical examples, it is shown how the community is succeeding in tailoring new technological solutions for a green transition, according with the specific needs of the island, as expressed by the islanders themselves, including batteries, electric vehicles, retrofitting of homes, or heat pumps, which, when combined, could lay the foundations for the creation of a Renewable Energy Community and leverage socioeconomic benefits.

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.RENENE.2021.11.115

Cravo, A., Barbosa, A. B., Correia, C., Matos, A., Caetano, S., Lima, M. J., & Jacob, J. (2022). Unravelling the effects of treated wastewater discharges on the water quality in a coastal lagoon system (Ria Formosa, South Portugal): Relevance of hydrodyna

Cravo, A., Barbosa, A. B., Correia, C., Matos, A., Caetano, S., Lima, M. J., & Jacob, J.

This study aimed to assess the influence of treated wastewater disposal on Ria Formosa coastal lagoon (South Portugal), the largest national producer of bivalve mollusks. Water quality was evaluated at two areas under different wastewater loads and hydrodynamic conditions, using physico-chemical variables, bacterial indicators of contamination, chlorophyll-a concentration, phytoplankton abundance and composition. Samples were collected monthly, between October 2018 and September 2019. Minor influence of effluent discharge was detected at the eastern Olhão area, exposed to stronger hydrodynamics and higher wastewater load than the northwestern Faro area (ca. 2–4-fold total nitrogen and phosphorus). The lower load weakly flushed area showed a poorer water quality, up to 500 m from the discharge point, more marked during the spring-summer period. The intensity, persistence, and spatial extent of the wastewater footprint, lower for the highest-loading area, reflected the role of local hydrodynamic conditions, modulating the influence of wastewater discharge on lagoonal water quality.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.113296

Krug, L. A., Sarker, S., Huda, A. N. M. S., Gonzalez-Silvera, A., Edward, A., Berghoff, C., Naranjo, C., Mahu, E., López-Calderón, J., Escudero, L., Tapia, M., Noernberg, M. A., Ahmed, M., Menon, N., & Betancur-Turizo, S. (2021). Putting Training into Pra

Krug, L. A., Sarker, S., Huda, A. N. M. S., Gonzalez-Silvera, A., Edward, A., Berghoff, C., Naranjo, C., Mahu, E., López-Calderón, J., Escudero, L., Tapia, M., Noernberg, M. A., Ahmed, M., Menon, N., & Betancur-Turizo, S.

The ocean benefits humankind by producing half of the global oxygen supply, absorbing a significant portion of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and providing us with food, transportation, and a means of livelihood. Nevertheless, human activities have been making the global ocean more acidic, warmer, and lower in oxygen (IPCC, 2021). Such changes and their impacts on ecosystems are highly variable, particularly in coastal areas where exchanges with the atmosphere and the land are more pronounced.The capacity to collect ocean observations is insufficient in many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries (IOC-UNESCO, 2020). This is linked not only to a dearth of funding and instrumentation but also to a lack of scientific personnel with the capacity to collect, analyze, and interpret oceanographic data. The Partnership for Observation of the Global Ocean (POGO) runs capacity development programs whose objectives are to develop key skills, capabilities, and capacities needed for worldwide ocean observations, and to nurture new generations of experts and leaders in ocean affairs (see Urban and Seeyave, 2021). Since 2004, the partnership between POGO and the Nippon Foundation (NF) has offered an extensive array of training programs to nearly 500 early career scientists from 74 countries, mainly with emerging economies. The NF-POGO Alumni Network for the Ocean (NANO) was created in 2010 as a means to keep track of trainees’ career progressions, maximize the benefits from the training received, and provide further opportunities for networking and collaboration. One of NANO’s major goals is to promote joint research activities among its members, ultimately applying ocean observations for societal benefit. Between 2012 and 2017, with the support of NF and POGO, NANO members successfully conducted five joint regional research projects that involved nearly 100 researchers from 21 countries and used coastal monitoring to study such issues as harmful algal blooms, eutrophication, coastal erosion, and invasive species.

https://doi.org/10.5670/OCEANOG.2021.SUPPLEMENT.02-08

Energy transition process and community engagement on geographic islands: The case of Culatra Island (Ria Formosa, Portugal)

Pacheco, A., Monteiro, J., Santos, J., Sequeira, C. & Nunes, J.

Islands have the potential to be precursors in the transition to clean energy, by adopting new technologies and applying innovative solutions that can serve as showcases at an international level. This paper is a contribution towards understating the importance of community engagement on energy transition processes. It covers multiple aspects of a green transition process, including technical, environmental, social, and economic issues. Starting by a participatory diagnosis process, the community of a small island located in Portugal (Culatra Island, Algarve), was challenged to lead the transition process and define different pillars of energy transition. The process brought together local authorities, academia, citizens and companies. Using practical examples, it is shown how the community is succeeding in tailoring new technological solutions for a green transition, according with the specific needs of the island, as expressed by the islanders themselves, including batteries, electric vehicles, retrofitting of homes, or heat pumps, which, when combined, could lay the foundations for the creation of a Renewable Energy Community and leverage socioeconomic benefits.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2021.11.115

Gonçalves, J. M., Sousa, V. S., Teixeira, M. R., & Bebianno, M. J. (2022). Chronic toxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Chemosphere, 287(Pt 4)

Gonçalves, J. M., Sousa, V. S., Teixeira, M. R., & Bebianno, M. J.

Nanoplastics (NP) (1–100 nm) are a growing global concern, and their adverse effects in marine organisms are still scarce. This study evaluated the effects of polystyrene nanoplastics (10 μg/L; 50 nm nPS) in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after a 21 – day exposure. The hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential of nPS were analysed, over time, in seawater and ultrapure water. A multibiomarker approach (genotoxicity (the comet assay) was assessed in mussel haemocytes, and the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)), biotransformation enzyme (glutathione – S – transferase (GST)), and oxidative damage (LPO)) was assessed in gills and digestive glands to evaluate the toxicity of nPS towards mussels. In seawater, aggregation of nPS is favoured and consequently the hydrodynamic diameter increases. Genotoxicity was highly noticeable in mussels exposed to nPS, presenting a higher % tail DNA when compared to controls. Antioxidant enzymes are overwhelmed after nPS exposure, leading to oxidative damage in both tissues. Results showed that mussel tissues are incapable of dealing with the effects that this emerging stressor pursues towards the organism. The Integrated Biomarker Response index, used to summarise the biomarkers analysed into one index, shows that nPS toxicity towards mussels are both tissue and time dependent, being that gills are the tissue most compromised.

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CHEMOSPHERE.2021.132356

Rodrigues, A. R., Mestre, N. C. C., da Fonseca, T. G., Pedro, P. Z., Carteny, C. C., Cormier, B., Keiter, S., & Bebianno, M. J. (2022). Influence of Particle Size on Ecotoxicity of Low-Density Polyethylene Microplastics, with and without Adsorbed Benzo-a-

Rodrigues, A. R., Mestre, N. C. C., da Fonseca, T. G., Pedro, P. Z., Carteny, C. C., Cormier, B., Keiter, S., & Bebianno, M. J.

This study investigated the ecotoxicological effects of differently sized (4–6 µm and 20–25 µm) low-density polyethylene (LDPE) microplastics (MPs), with and without adsorbed benzo-a-pyrene (BaP), in clam Scrobicularia plana. Biomarkers of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase—SOD; catalase—CAT), biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferases—GST), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation—LPO) and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase—AChE) were analysed in gills and digestive glands at different time intervals for a total of 14 days of exposure. In order to have a better impact perspective of these contaminants, an integrated biomarker response index (IBR) and Health Index were applied. Biomarker alterations are apparently more related to smaller sized (4–6 µm) MPs in gills and to virgin LDPE MPs in the digestive gland according to IBR results, while the digestive gland was more affected by these MPs according to the health index.

https://doi.org/10.3390/BIOM12010078

New insights into benzo[a]pyrene osteotoxicity in zebrafish. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

Tarasco, M., Gavaia, P., Bensimon-Brito, A., Cardeira-da-Silva, J., Ramkumar, S., Cordelières, F. P., Günther, S., Bebianno, M. J., Didier, Y., Stainier, R., Cancela, M. L. & Laizé, V.

Persistent and ubiquitous organic pollutants, such as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[⍺]pyrene (BaP), represent a major threat to aquatic organisms and human health. Beside some well-documented adverse effects on the development and reproduction of aquatic organisms, BaP was recently shown to affect fish bone formation and skeletal development through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. In this work, zebrafish bone-related in vivo assays were used to evaluate the osteotoxic effects of BaP during bone development and regeneration. Acute exposure of zebrafish larvae to BaP from 3 to 6 days post-fertilization (dpf) induced a dose-dependent reduction of the opercular bone size and a depletion of osteocalcin-positive cells, indicating an effect on osteoblast maturation. Chronic exposure of zebrafish larvae to BaP from 3 to 30 dpf affected the development of the axial skeleton and increased the incidence and severity of skeletal deformities. In young adults, BaP affected the mineralization of newly formed fin rays and scales, and impaired fin ray patterning and scale shape, through mechanisms that involve an imbalanced bone remodeling. Gene expression analyses indicated that BaP induced the activation of xenobiotic and metabolic pathways, while negatively impacting extracellular matrix formation and organization. Interestingly, BaP exposure positively regulated inflammation markers in larvae and increased the recruitment of neutrophils. A direct interaction between neutrophils and bone extracellular matrix or bone forming cells was observed in vivo, suggesting a role for neutrophils in the mechanisms underlying BaP osteotoxicity. Our work provides novel data on the cellular and molecular players involved in BaP osteotoxicity and brings new insights into a possible role for neutrophils in inflammatory bone reduction.

226, 112838.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112838

The Global pendemic has shown we need an Action Plan for the Ocean

Murphy, E.J., Robinson, C., Hobday, A.J., Newton, A., Glaser, M., Evans, K., Dickey-Collas, M., Brodie, S. & Gehlen, M.

The COVID-19 pandemic is the first serious test of how science can inform decision-making in the face of an immediate global threat, yielding important lessons on how science, society and policy interact. The global societal and economic impact of COVID-19 has shown that we need to assess, plan and prepare for potential future changes. These insights are particularly important for the ocean science community because of the global connectivity of the ocean and its crucial role in the Earth's climate system and in supporting all life on Earth. With climate change already impacting society and ecosystems, implementing mitigation measures to avoid and reduce emissions of greenhouses gases is an immediate priority (IPCC, 2021). Irreversible changes are already underway in the oceans and their impacts over the coming decades will continue to affect human communities, requiring societal responses and adaptation across multiple scales (IPCC, 20192021).

The importance of the ocean in the Earth's climate system, influencing weather patterns and affecting sea level, is now recognized by governments and increasingly so by the public. Less well-appreciated is the central role of the ocean in maintaining ecosystems and biodiversity and in supporting human systems. Approximately 680 million people live in low-lying coastal zones, and ocean and coastal economies support millions of people globally (Ebarvia, 2016IPCC, 2019). The global economy associated with our coasts and ocean (the “Blue Economy”) is estimated to have an asset base of over US$24 trillion (24 ×1012) and generates at least US$2.5 trillion each year from the combination of fishing and aquaculture, shipping, tourism, and other activities (OECD, 2016). Nevertheless, marine systems across the planet are being altered because of climate change and human activity with impacts at local to global scales (e.g., Allison and Bassett, 2015He and Silliman, 2019IPCC, 2019UN, 2021). These changes are unprecedented, threatening the capacity of the ocean to maintain crucial services to the planet and human communities (ecosystem services), including those that provide (e.g., food, water, and economic security), regulate (e.g., climate), support (e.g., nutrient cycling) and are cultural in their nature (e.g., traditional or recreational use) (IPCC, 2019Sala et al., 2021) and so are increasing the potential for societal conflict.

The challenge is urgent. There is an immediate requirement to go beyond calls for action to deal with aspects of the impacts of climate change and human activities on the ocean (IPCC, 2019UNESCO-IOC, 2021). An Action Plan for the Ocean is needed that develops a comprehensive global understanding of and plan for dealing with multiple ocean risks, that is flexible and adaptive as knowledge expands and new threats arise. The urgency of the challenge requires an internationally coordinated effort that draws on existing global research capacity and networks; a key opportunity presented by the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development 2021-2030 (UNESCO-IOC, 2021) that must not be missed if we are to minimize change in ocean systems and impacts on the services they provide to society.

8, 1835.

https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.760731

Dynamics of fortnightly water level variations along a tide-dominated estuary with negligible river discharge

Garel, E., Zhang, P. & Cai, H.

Observations indicate that the fortnightly fluctuations in the mean amplitude of water level increase in the upstream direction along the lower half of a tide-dominated estuary (the Guadiana Estuary), with negligible river discharge, but remain constant upstream. Analytical solutions reproducing the semi-diurnal wave propagation shows that this pattern results from reflection effects at the estuary head. The phase difference between velocity and elevation increases from the mouth to the head (where the wave has a standing nature) as the timing of high and low water levels come progressively closer to slack water. Thus, the tidal (flood–ebb) asymmetry in discharge is reduced in the upstream direction. It becomes negligible along the upper estuary half as the mean sea level remains constant despite increased friction due to wave shoaling. Observations of a flat mean water level along a significant portion of an upper estuary suggest a standing wave character and, thus, indicate significant reflection of the propagating semi-diurnal wave at the head. Details of the analytical model show that changes in the mean depth or length of semi-arid estuaries, in particular for macrotidal locations, affect the fortnightly tide amplitude and, thus, the upstream mass transport and inundation regime. This has significant potential impacts on the estuarine environment in terms of ecosystem management.

17(6), 1605-1621.

https://doi.org/10.5194/os-17-1605-2021

Social–environmental analysis of estuary water quality in a populous urban area

Tseng, H.C., Newton, A., Gong, G.C. & Lin, C.C.

Asia has been experiencing rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic growth in recent decades. Taiwan was one of the 4 Asian dragons, regions that experienced rapid industrialization and exceptionally high growth rates between the early 1960s and 1990s, but at a high cost to the environment, and thus, it was heavily polluted. Estuaries are highly dynamic and diverse ecosystems that provide multiple ecosystem services that maintain marine ecosystem health and benefit humankind. However, estuaries and the ecosystem services they provide are rapidly degrading due to increasing pressures and changes, especially those in populous, urban areas. Social–environmental analysis integrates scientific information and social activities and thereby provides a comprehensive understanding for the multiparty, joint decision-making processes necessary for successful, sustainable management. In this study, 60 years of economic data and 26 years of water quality data are examined using social–environmental frameworks, the driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework, and the systems approach framework to analyze the management of water quality for an estuary in a populous urban area, the Tamsui River estuary, in Taiwan. Potential societal responses and management measures are identified that can be implemented to reduce human activities, diminish pressure, ameliorate water quality, and enhance the state of the estuarine systems in the Tamsui River and its estuary. The recommended societal responses are increased education, the establishment of community-based river rangers, wetland and mangrove conservation, the development of a circular economy, the implementation of governance measures, and improvements in monitoring and assessments. Improvement of the water quality in the Tamsui River estuary increases the hedonic value of property for people who live near the riverside. Currently, the number of tourists and tourism-based businesses have increased. Nevertheless, improvements in water quality in the Tamsui River estuary bring well-being and benefits that could be further enhanced to increase the cost/benefit relation of the management measures.

9 (1): 00085. doi:

https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.2020.00085

Measuring sense of place: a new place-people-time-self model

Domingues, R.B., Gonçalves, G. & Jesus, S.N.

Many models of place attachment and sense of place have proliferated in the last decades,
and a consensus on the conceptualisation and operationalisation of these constructs is yet
to be reached. We aim to contribute to this discussion, by proposing a new model and
measurement of sense of place as an overarching construct, using exploratory and confirmator y
analyses. Results suggested that sense of place is a second-order factor with four first-order
factors: ‘place’, ‘people’, ‘time’, and ‘self’. The ‘place’ dimension integrates emotional
content associated with the place and can be loosely compared to the unidimensional place
attachment in other models. The ‘people’ dimension corresponds to the sense of community
construct, whereas the ‘time’ dimension reflects the importance of length of residence and
intergenerational transmission. Finally, the ‘self’ dimension is more internally focused than
the other dimensions, reflecting the role of the place for an individual’s distinctiveness and
self-esteem. Our 32-item Sense of Place Scale is thus a valid and reliable measure based on
a quadripartite structure of the sense of place construct.

9(3): 239-258

(PDF) Measuring sense of place: A new place-people-time-self model. (researchgate.net)

Do microplastic contaminated seafood consumption pose a potential risk to human health?

Vital, C. S. A., Cardoso, C., Avio, C., Pittura, L., Regoli, F. & Bebianno, M. J.

Microplastics are present in all parts of the ocean and can have deleterious effects on marine resources. The aim of this work was to map the presence of microplastics in commercial marine species such as bivalves (mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and clams Scrobicularia plana), crabs (Carcinus maenas) as well as fish (Mullus surmuletus) to relate microplastics levels to pollution sources, assess possible impact on marine food chains and on human health. These species were collected from several sites of the Ria Formosa lagoon and along the south coast of Portugal. A quantitative assessment (number, size and color) and typology of microplastics were made in these species. Only one green fragment of polypropylene was detected in the gills of the crabs, while a blue polyethylene fragment was detected in the hepatopancreas of the mullets. Moreover, no microplastics were present in S. plana nor in the crabs whole soft tissues. Among mussels, 86% of microplastics were present from all sites and the number, size and color were site specific. Mussels from the west side of the coast (Sites 1–3) had the highest levels of MPs per mussel and per weight compared to the other sites, probably related to the impact of touristic activity, fishing gears, fresh water and sewage effluents along with the hydrodynamics of the area.

171, 112769.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112769

A web-based observatory for biogeochemical assessment in coastal regions

Rodrigues, M., Martins, R., Rogeiro, J., Fortunato, A.B., Oliveira, A., Cravo, A., Jacob, J., Rosa, A., Azevedo, A. & Freire, P.

The concept of water observatories is extended to create a highly versatile tool for both the daily and the long-term management of estuarine ecosystems. Coastal observatories are evolving from simple data repositories to include forecasts, scenarios’ analyses and indicators, integrated in web platforms that provide multiple products and services. In a context of climate change (CC) and growing anthropogenic pressures, the assessment of the ecological health implies that the biogeochemical status is adequately quantified and incorporated in the coastal management decision-making procedure. This quantification requires accurate models for hydrodynamics and ecology that account for all relevant processes at the right scales. These models must be applied in forecast mode for emergency purposes and in hindcast mode to explore multiple scenarios as part of the CC adaptation strategy, creating a complex, vast amount of information to be shared with the coastal managers. A web-based portal supported by a comprehensive modeling and forecasting framework and materialized along the main water quality/biogeochemistry themes, from data to indicators, is developed and demonstrated in two distinct yet complex coastal systems: the Tagus estuary and the Ria Formosa lagoon. The paper starts with the requirements analysis from both ecological and computer science perspectives and then presents the overall multi-layered architecture of the framework and its key software components. The observatory portal implementation and demonstration explore its usefulness for coastal management.

1726-2135. 

https://doi.org/10.3808/jei.202100450.

Environmental risks and quality of life of a coastal community (Luanda, Angola)

Nogueira, P.F., Faria, S., Mosley, B.A. & Domingues, R.B.

Luanda Bay and Mussulo Lagoon, situated in Luanda (Angola), are two coastal ecosystemshighly sensitive to environmental issues, such as climate change, water pollution,eutrophication, and harmful algal blooms. These environmental problems can severelyaffect the quality of life of coastal populations. In this study, we aim to evaluate severalpsychological variables, such as environmental risk perception and awareness, sense of place,environmental attitudes, and the overall quality of life of the coastal community in theseareas, using a comprehensive questionnaire applied to residents and other ecosystem users.Results indicate that most respondents considered that they possess high knowledge aboutclimate change, water pollution, and ingestion of contaminated seafood. However, regardingeutrophication and harmful algal blooms, most participants reported a low/moderateknowledge. Life experience and the media were reported as the most relevant sources ofinformation on environmental problems. Respondents indicated a moderate risk perceptiontowards environmental risks, and a moderate/high emotional attachment to the place.Residents’ perceived quality of life was moderate/good in terms of physical and psychologicalhealth, and social relationships, but the environmental component was perceived as weak.Results suggest that improvements in the natural environment are needed to increase thequality of life in these ecosystems.

9(3): 205-224

News media coverage and social media reactions to a red tide at the Algarve coast (southern Portugal)

Domingues, R.B.

In June 2019, a red tide caused by the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra, whose toxins do not cause harm in humans, developed in the Algarve coast (southern Portugal). The occurrence of algal toxins and consequent interdiction of bivalve harvesting is common in this region, but harmful algal blooms that lead to water discolouration are rare. This study analyses the scientific accuracy of the information communicated by news media, and consequent public reactions, by analysing news pieces shared on Facebook by regional and national news media outlets, and comments to the news posted by individual users. Overall, news pieces had a sensationalized, negative tone, and many lacked scientific accuracy. For instance, some news referred that ingestion of contaminated water, fish, and shellfish leads to gastrointestinal problems, and the toxic substances that the algae produce may contaminate the air and cause respiratory difficulties – which is false in the case of a L. polyedra bloom. Many commenters showed an adverse reaction to the event, most likely influenced by the negative portrayal of the red tide by news media. Other Facebook users were quite knowledgeable about the red tide, due to their previous experience with these events. Individuals seemed to be aware of the lack of cooperation between authorities and scientists and expressed their mistrust in these stakeholders. As red tides may become a common feature in the Algarve coast, journalists, scientists, and authorities should strive to offer accurate and responsible information to the public.

9(3): 176-188.

https://www.jsod-cieo.net/journal/index.php/jsod/article/view/285

Turbine design dependency to turbulence: an experimental study of three scaled tidal turbines

Slama, M., Pinon, G., El Hadi, C., Togneri, M., Gaurierc, B., Germain, G., Facq, J., Nuño, J., Mansilla, P., Nicolas, E., Marcille, J. & Pacheco, A.

In this paper the turbulence effects are studied for three rotors mounted on the same instrumented hub. Two scaled models of industrial turbines and one open-geometry turbine are considered. The turbulence characteristics are obtained from 2D Laser Doppler Velocimeter measurements and the turbine behaviour is analysed from thrust and torque measurements. Three turbulence intensities and a large range of tip speed ratios and flow velocities are considered. The results are anonymised in order to ensure confidentiality. The rotors have different blade profiles, blade numbers and solidity. The rotor design largely modifies the mean power and thrust coefficients. The turbulence intensity only slightly changes these results but has a larger influence on the fluctuating loads than the different rotor designs. The spectral analysis of the rotor torque and thrust shows that, at low frequencies the load variations are correlated to those of the flow velocity with some differences due to the turbulence intensity levels. The coherences between the loads and the velocity seem to be not affected by the rotor type. At high frequencies, the load variations are correlated to the speed control unit of the scaled model and the rotor design has an impact on the rotational speed and loads coherences.

234, 109035,

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.109035

Cost-benefit analysis of tidal energy production in a coastal lagoon: The case of Ria Formosa – Portugal

Rodrigues, N., Pintassilgo, P., Calhau, F., González-Gorbeña, E. & Pacheco, A

The energy that can be extracted from tidal currents is one of the most promising renewable energy sources due to its high density/predictability. Within this paper this energy source is evaluated economically respecting sustainability principles. This evaluation contrasts from previous studies due to the application of a cost-benefit analysis based on a hydro-morphodynamic model, and moving away from the classic proxy of wind energy. It further includes, via the Monte Carlo method, a probabilistic underpinning to the project. The hydro-economic model was applied to a tidal energy project using an Evopod 1:4th scale prototype, based on a real deployment of an Evopod 1:10th scale device in the Ria Formosa, Algarve. The results show that, under the current costs and benefits, the project is not economically viable. However, there are admissible parameter ranges that make the project viable such as significant reduction of investment costs, increased capacity factors and favourable energy prices. This novel methodology has potential to be applied to other tidal energy projects on estuarine systems worldwide, and consists of a comprehensive modelling approach, including the technical, environmental, and socio-economic dimensions of the project, not only in a deterministic setting but also in a probabilistic one.

229, 120812,

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2021.120812

Implications of sea-level rise for overwash enhancement at South Portugal

Ferreira, Ó., Kupfer, S. & Costas, S.

Overwash is one of the most prominent hazards affecting coastal zones, and the associated consequences are expected to increase because of both sea-level rise and intensification of coastal occupation. This study used a 23-year data set of wave heights and tide-surge levels to define return periods of overwash potential for current and future sea-level conditions, namely 2055 and 2100, at two sites from South Portugal. A relevant intensification of both frequency and magnitude of the overwash is expected to occur by mid-century if adaptation measures are not taken and further aggravated by 2100. Current overwash levels with a return period of 100-years can reach a return period lower than 20-years by 2055 and 10-years by 2100. However, these values are rather variable from site to site, highlighting the urgency to develop detailed local studies to identify climate change impacts along coastal sectors, based on validated equations and long-term time series. These could be easily carried by replicating and adapting the here proposed methodology to sandy coasts worldwide. Understating the impact that climate change (namely sea-level rise) may have at the local level is key to contribute to effective management plans that include adaptation measures to minimize risks associated with coastal floods.

109, 2221-2239

http://hdl.handle.net/10400.1/16950

Comparative Study of the Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Two Types of Moroccan Euphorbia Entire Honey and Their Phenolic Extracts

Boutoub, O., El-Guendouz, S., Manhita, A., Dias, C.B., Estevinho, L.M., Paula, V.B., Carlier, J., Costa, M.C., Rodrigues, B., Raposo, S., Aazza, S., El Ghadraoui, L. & Miguel, M.G.

Honey is a natural food product very famous for its health benefits for being an important source of antioxidant and phenolic compounds. Euphorbia honeys obtained from different regions of Morocco were evaluated for their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase, lipoxygenase, tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase activities. Their antioxidant properties were evaluated using the: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity, nitric oxide scavenging activity (NO) and scavenging ability of superoxide anion radical. Then, the phenolic extracts of the same entire honey samples were evaluated by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS) and tested for the biological activities previously evaluated on the entire honeys, in order to conduct a comparative study between both (honey and phenolic extracts). The chromatographic profiles for the studied Euphorbia honey extracts were different. Phenolic compounds gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid were detected in all samples, whereas kampferol was only present in two samples. Physicochemical parameters and total phenolic content were also determined. Entire honey that recorded the highest rate of phenols was sample M6 (E. resinifera) = 69.25 mg GAE/100 g. On the other hand, the phenolic extracts had better antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities than the entire honeys, regardless the monofloral honey type. In conclusion, the studied Euphorbia honeys may have a great potential as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tyrosinase sources for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.

Foods 10, 1909.

https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081909

Application of scientific criteria for identifying hydrothermal ecosystems in need of protection

S.Gollner, A.Colaço, A.Gebruk, P.N.Halpin, N.Higgs, E.Menini, N.C.Mestre, P.-Y.Qian, J.Sarrazin, K.Szafranski, C.L.Van Dover

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are globally rare (abundant in numbers, but extremely small in area) and are rich in extraordinary life based on chemosynthesis rather than photosynthesis. Vent fields are also sources of polymetallic sulfides rich in copper and other metals. Mineral resources of the international seabed beyond national jurisdictions (referred to as the “Area”) are administered by the International Seabed Authority (ISA), which has the mandate to organize and control mineral resource-related activities and to ensure effective protection of the marine environment from harmful effects which may arise from such activities. To date, the ISA has approved 3 contracts for mineral exploration on the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (nMAR) and is developing a Regional Environmental Management Plan (REMPs) for polymetallic sulfide resources in the Area of northern MAR, including the application of area-based management tools to address the potential impacts of mining activities. Several intergovernmental organizations have developed suites of criteria to identify vulnerable, sensitive, and ecologically or biologically significant ecosystems in need of protection. In this case study, we combine criteria developed by FAO for VMEs (Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems), by CBD for EBSAs (Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas), and by IMO for PSSAs (Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas) to assess whether the 11 confirmed vent fields on the nMAR may meet these criteria. Our assessment indicates that all vent fields meet multiple criteria for vulnerability, sensitivity, and ecological or biological significance, and 10 of 11 vent fields meet all criteria for ecosystems in need of protection.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2021.104641

Past and future marsh adaptation: Lessons learned from the Ria Formosa lagoon

A.R.Carrasco, K.Kombiadou, M.Amado, A.Matias

It is rational to assume that salt marshes in regions where sediment loads are high should remain stable or prograde when facing a range of sea-level scenarios, whereas those in sediment-poor systems may erode or drown. Despite extensive theoretical and laboratory studies, additional marsh ‘persistence’ indicators under human pressures and accelerated sea-level rise rates are still needed. This study investigates the recent lateral and volumetric changes occurring in the lagoon marshes of the Ria Formosa lagoon (south Portugal), under human pressures and sea-level rise. Our analysis assesses the past (1947–2014) geomorphological evolution of marshes based on aerial imagery analysis and estimates its potential future adjustment to sea-level rise (~100 years) based on SLAMM (landscape-based model) simulated land cover changes. We highlight the influence of both stressors on marsh ecosystems and examine how their interactions can contribute to understanding sea-level rise impacts and ecological resilience of lagoon marshes. Salt marshes in the Ria Formosa have slowly expanded over the last 70 years (~0.2 mm/yr), with local erosion in front of tidal inlets and along the main navigable channels, associated with inlet migration and dredging activities. Past evolution shows that the ecosystem was able to maintain its functions and cope with sea-level rise. However, future marsh trajectories under a high sea-level rise rate suggest unbalanced vertical marsh accretion and progressive migration of the tidal flat (and water bodies) towards the salt marsh area. The model results show evidence of non-linearity in marsh response to high sea-level rise rates, which could indicate the presence of a system tipping-point and potential positive (disturbance-reinforcing) feedbacks within the system, with significant implications to marsh resilience.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148082

New data on the palynology of the Triassic–Jurassic boundary of the Silves Group, Lusitanian Basin, Portugal

Margarida Vilas-Boas, Zélia Pereira, Simonetta Cirilli, Luís Vítor Duarte, Paulo Fernandes

New evidence is presented on the Triassic–Jurassic boundary in the northern Lusitanian Basin, Portugal, based on miospore assemblages from a composite Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic succession of the Silves Group. The latter comprises, from base to top, the Conraria, Penela, Castelo Viegas and the Pereiros formations. Three informal palynological zones have been documented and compared with coeval palynozones from West and South Europe providing new biostratigraphic data to detail the age of the lower and upper formations of the Silves Group and to review previous age attribution.

A Norian, possibly earliest Rhaetian age, is documented for the Conraria Formation on the basis of a palynological assemblage referable to the Classopollis meyerianus–Granuloperculatipollis rudis (CG) zone. The Penela and Castelo Viegas formations did not allow a palynostratigraphic revision, due to the not promising lithology for palynological studies. The Pereiros Formation is dated on the basis of microflora assemblages referable, from bottom to top, the Ischyosporites variegatus–Kraeuselisporites reissingeri (IK) zone of late Rhaetian–earliest Hettangian age and Pinuspollenites minimus (Pm) zone of Hettangian age. The discontinuity between the underlying Castelo Viegas Formation and the overlying Pereiros Formation did not allow to define the lower boundary of the IK palynozone. The Triassic–Jurassic boundary lies in the lower part of Pereiros Formation within the IK zone. The microflora assemblages from the Lusitanian Basin show close affinity to those of eastern N America and western Tethys areas.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2021.104426

 

Characterization of a fatty acid-binding protein from the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas): pharmaceutical and toxicological implications

Juliana F. Tisca, Karin dos Santos, Tomás B. Pessati, Flávia L. Zacchi, Fabíola S. Soares, Vanessa A. Oliveira, Maria J.A.F. Bebianno, Afonso C.D. Bainy & Guilherme Razzera

Pharmaceuticals and their metabolites constitute a class of xenobiotics commonly found in aquatic environments which may cause toxic effects in aquatic organisms. Several different lipophilic molecules, including some pharmaceuticals, can bind to fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), a group of evolutionarily related cytoplasmic proteins that belong to the intracellular lipid-binding protein (iLBP) family. An oyster FABP genome-wide investigation was not available until a recent study on gene organization, protein structure, and phylogeny of Crassostrea gigas iLBPs. Higher transcript levels of the C. gigas FABP2 gene were found after exposure to sewage and pharmaceuticals. Because of its relevance as a potential biomarker of aquatic contamination, in this study, recombinant FABP2 from C. gigas (CgFABP2) was successfully cloned, expressed, and purified, and in vitro and in silico assays were performed using lipids and pharmaceuticals. This is the first characterization of a protein from the iLBP family in C. gigas. Homology modeling and molecular docking were used to evaluate the binding affinities of natural ligands (palmitic, oleic, and arachidonic acids) and pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, sodium diclofenac, and acetaminophen). Among the tested fatty acids, CgFABP2 showed preference for palmitic acid. The selected pharmaceuticals presented a biphasic-binding mode, suggesting a different binding affinity with a preference for diclofenac. Therefore, the approach using circular dichroism and in silico data might be useful for ligand-binding screening in an invertebrate model organism.

 

https://doi.org/10.1007/S11356-021-12645-Y

Correction to: Characterization of a fatty acid-binding protein from the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas): pharmaceutical and toxicological implications

Juliana F. Tisca, Karin dos Santos, Tomás B. Pessati, Flávia L. Zacchi, Fabíola S. Soares, Vanessa A. Oliveira, Maria J. A. F. Bebianno, Afonso C. D. Bainy & Guilherme Razzera

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12645-y

An assessment of the psychometric properties of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale and its prediction in safety performance in a Portuguese adult sample

Cátia Sousa, Gabriela Gonçalves, António Sousa & Ezequiel Pinto

This study aims to present the psychometric properties of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale in a Portuguese sample. Three studies were performed: the first study provides psychometric evidence pertaining to its reliability and factor structure, an analysis of the measurement invariance of the BSSS across gender and age, and an examination of the differences scores on the scale regarding gender, age and marital status (n = 526); the second study consists of an assessment of convergent, discriminant and postdictive validity (n = 240); and the third study includes a test-retest of the BSSS (n = 72). A four-factor model yielded the best fit to the data with good reliability and validity. The scale showed non-invariance between genders and between ages, which makes it less generalizable and susceptible to different populations. Convergent validity with the variables risk taking, need for arousal and extraversion, and discriminant validity between neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness, were demonstrated. The scale presents good temporal stability and represent an important tool for psychological assessment of personality and behavior, and as a predictor of safety performance.

https://doi.org/10.1007/S12144-018-9966-8

Environmental Protection Requires Accurate Application of Scientific Evidence

Craig R.Smith, Verena Tunnicliffe, Ana Colaço, Jeffrey C.Drazen, Sabine Gollner, Lisa A.Levin, Nelia C.Mestre, Anna Metaxas, Tina N.Molodtsova, Telmo Morato, Andrew K.Sweetman, Travis Washburn, Diva J.Amon

We thank Dr Verlaan [1] for offering a legal opinion on the United Nations Convention for the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and its protections for the marine environment, inspired by reading our paper [2]. We agree that scientists and lawyers should work together to formulate deep-sea mining regulations; to this end, we have jointly authored 19 publications with lawyers on topics related to human impacts in the deep sea. We also agree that regulatory decisions concerning seabed mining must be informed both by accurate interpretations of the law and by accurate application of the best available scientific evidence.

We disagree that our paper [2] is a ‘well-intentioned but inaccurate legal analysis’ [1], because it is not a legal analysis. It is a scientific paper highlighting misconceptions about the potential environmental impacts of seabed mining that result when the best available scientific evidence is overlooked.

We feel obligated to point out four areas of scientific inaccuracy and misrepresentation in the critique of our paper [1]. First, Verlaan [1] speculates that we are suggesting ‘that a ‘miniscule [sic] effect’ argument can legally be made to ignore or permit harmful effects.’ Rather than a legal argument, we are warning against misrepresenting threats from seabed mining to deep-sea ecosystems by comparing the spatial scales of mining disturbance with the area of entire ocean basins [3] (https://ran-s3.s3.amazonaws.com/isa.org.jm/s3fs-public/documents/EN/SG-Stats/dsm-hamburg.pdf). Such arguments appear to be based on the misconception that the deep seafloor is largely a single, homogeneous habitat. Numerous peer-reviewed papers provide scientific evidence that deep seafloor habitats and their characteristic biotas can be heterogeneous on scales ≥10 kilometers (e.g., [2,4,5]). Thus, seabed mining disturbance occurring over scales much smaller than ocean basins may threaten unique habitats and biodiversity [6,7]. We note that mining for polymetallic nodules at the scales currently under consideration in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) could alter habitat structure and biodiversity over >500 000 km2 of seafloor (i.e., an area roughly the size of France) and threaten substantial proportions of unique nodule habitat [2].

Second, Verlaan [1] questions our statement that areas targeted for seabed mining include ‘wilderness.’ Hydrothermal vents, many seamounts, and abyssal areas beyond Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) remain among the most intact ecosystems on the planet [8,9] and fit the definition of ‘wilderness’ in scientific usage (i.e., ‘areas devoid of intense human impacts’) [10].

Third, the statement, “‘Conservation” is required for natural resources, not ecosystems…’ [1], is at odds with the science of conservation biology, in which a major conservation objective is the protection of entire ecosystems [11]. Conservation biology has led to the principles of ‘ecosystem-based management’ that underpin the ISA’s Regional Environmental Management Plan for the CCZ, which aims to ‘Maintain regional biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecosystem function…’ (ISBA/17/LTC/7, https://isa.org.jm/files/files/documents/isba-17ltc-7_0.pdf). Thus, conservation of marine ecosystems is a fundamental component of scientifically based marine spatial planning and environmental management [12].

Fourth, it is also scientifically inaccurate to suggest that ‘the less “pristine” the marine environment, the greater the risk of harmful effects from activities; hence the more its protection is required.’ Current views in conservation biology call for prioritizing protection of wilderness areas because they often contain ‘high genetic diversity, unique functional traits, and endemic species; maintain high levels of ecological and evolutionary connectivity; and may be well placed to resist and recover from the impacts of climate change’ [10]. The need to protect ‘naturalness’ has been recognized in the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity Conference of the Parties Decision IX/20 Annex I with the goal ‘to protect areas with near natural structure, processes and functions,’ ‘to maintain these areas as reference sites,’ and ‘to safeguard and enhance ecosystem resilience’ (https://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=11663).

In closing, we agree that environmentally responsible regulation of human activities in the ocean requires both sound legal analyses and scientific evidence [1]. However, the design of scientific research and the collection and interpretation of scientific data are the responsibility of scientists, who must ensure that the best scientific evidence is available and used. A clear understanding of the environmental consequences of seabed mining based on scientific evidence is key to most efficiently managing human activities in the ocean to maintain biodiversity, ecosystem structure, and ecosystem services.

Finally, we applaud Verlaan [1] for stressing the uncertainties regarding the multiple adverse impacts of human activities on the ocean: ‘The marine environment is acidifying, warming, deoxygenating, becoming noisier, brighter, overfished, and more polluted. It is legally and scientifically unclear how to disentangle and regulate these and other adverse effects of human activities from those specifically related to sea-bed mining’ [1]. This argument highlights the need for a precautionary approach in proceeding with deep seabed mining due to our poor understanding of deep-sea ecosystems and mining impacts and the potential for interactions with other anthropogenic threats to the marine environment [2].

 

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2020.10.021

Environmental triggers of faunal changes revealed by benthic foraminiferal monitoring

Joachim Schönfeld and Isabel Mendes

Benthic foraminifera are deemed sensitive indicators of environmental conditions. Triggers and magnitudes of faunal response to environmental changes are yet poorly constrained. Benthic foraminiferal faunas were monitored annually at Ria Formosa (Algarve, Portugal) coastal lagoon since 2013. Distinct environmental changes were recognised during the monitoring period. The relocation of a tidal inlet in winter 2015 effected faster flushing, higher tidal levels, and stronger currents in the Esteiro do Ancão tidal channel. The epibenthic foraminiferal species Asterigerinata mamilla increased in abundance and the population densities of the whole fauna were double as high as before inlet relocation. Enhanced sediment redeposition was recorded and extensive polychaete colonies successively replaced firmground patches with oysters. The standing stock of the foraminiferal fauna declined in the next year due to food impoverishment, while the high hydraulic energy levels and high percentages of Asterigerinata mamilla maintained. Benthic foraminifera responded much faster to environmental perturbations than macroorganisms identifying them as powerful proxies in environmental studies.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2021.107313

 

Marine Litter on the Coast of the Algarve: Main Sources and Distribution Using a Modeling Approach

Eloah Rosas, Flávio Martins and João Janeiro

The accumulation of floating marine litter poses a serious threat to the global environment and the economy all over the world, particularly of coastal municipalities that rely on tourism and recreational activities. Data of marine litter is thus crucial, but is usually limited, and can be complemented with modelling results. In this study, the operational modelling system of Algarve (SOMA) was combined with a Lagrangian particle-tracking model and blended with scarce litter monitoring data, to provide first insights into the distribution and accumulation of floating marine litter on the Algarve coast. Different meteo-oceanographic conditions, sources regions and wind drift behaviors were considered. Field data and model results show a considerable concentration of marine litter along the beaches and coastal regions. The model also suggests that oceanographic conditions and wind drift have a great influence on the transport and accumulation rate of the floating marine litter on the coast, with the highest rates of accumulation during the winter and the counter current period, concentrated mostly on the south-western coast of the Algarve.

https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040412

Effects of climate change and anthropogenic pressures in the water quality of a coastal lagoon (Ria Formosa, Portugal)

Marta Rodrigues, Alexandra Rosa, Alexandra Cravo, José Jacob, André B.Fortunato

Understanding how climatic and anthropogenic drivers will influence coastal lagoons is fundamental to guarantee their preservation and sustainability. The Ria Formosa (coastal lagoon, South coast of Portugal) is a very important ecosystem that supports diverse economic activities in the region. The 3D coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model SCHISM was validated and used to assess the influence of climate change and anthropogenic pressures on the water quality of the Ria Formosa. Five scenarios were simulated: reference scenario (S0), mean sea level rise (SLR) of 0.5 m (S1), increase of the air temperature of 1.68 °C (S2), increase of the outflow from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) by 50% (S3) and a combined scenario (S4). Results suggest that SLR of 0.5 m promotes an increase of 0.5–3 in the salinity near the area of influence of the WWTP. SLR decreases the inorganic nutrient concentrations in these areas by about 40–60%, due to an increase of the dilution. In contrast, the increase of the outflow from the WWTP by 50% increases the nutrients concentrations by about 20–40%. The increase of the air temperature alone by 1.68 °C increases the water temperature by 0–1 °C. The combined scenario suggests antagonist effects in the nutrient concentrations. Overall, the trophic index (TRIX) of the lagoon calculated for the scenarios exhibits only minor differences relative to the reference scenario, except in some areas near the WWTP discharges. In these areas, TRIX tends to increase with the increase of the outflow from the WWTP in scenario S3. These results provide further insight into the response of coastal lagoons, and the Ria Formosa in particular, to future changes and contribute to support their management.

 

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2021.146311

Preliminary late Miocene palynomorph assemblages from the Quifangondo and Luanda formations, Onshore Kwanza Basin, Angola

C.F.Rodrigues, Z.Pereira, M.Mendes, P.C.Nsungani, P.Fernandes, G.Lopes, L.V.Duarte, W.Aboelkomsan, E.Taylor, M.Tyrrell, M.F.Fernando, V.Machado

A Miocene succession exposed at the Cabo Ledo and Miradouro da Lua sections in the Onshore Kwanza Basin, Angola, was examined for palynology. Palynomorphs of preliminary late Miocene age identified are presented herein. The upper part of the Quifangondo Formation is dated as middle Tortonian in age based on the co-occurrence of the pollen grain Fenestrites spinosus and the dinoflagellate species Selenopemphix armageddonensis. The palynomorph signature indicates a middle neritic marine environment dominated by dinoflagellate cyst taxa.

A late Miocene (late Tortonian to Messinian) age is also documented for the first time at the base of the Luanda Formation based on the co-occurrence of the pollen taxa Echitricolporites spinosus, Fenestrites spinosus, Fenestrites longispinosus, Monoporopollenites annulatus, and Retistephanocolpites gracilis. The palynomorph signature of this unit reflects an inner neritic marine (coastal/lagoon transitional) environment dominated by terrestrial palynomorphs and very rare dinoflagellate cyst taxa.

The present research contributes data for improving the stratigraphical framework of the Quifangondo and Luanda formations, both of which are recognized as the main potential source rocks and reservoirs of the Post-Salt Paleogene/Neogene Petroleum System of the Kwanza Basin. This significant contribution provides important biostratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental data for defining the vital temporal horizons of these settings in a basin where petroleum exploration is of interest.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2021.104141

Implementation and validation of an approach for the estimation of the magnitude of historical earthquakes in Azores Islands

Eduardo Charters Morais, Tiago Miguel Ferreira, João M.C.Estêvão, Carlos Sousa Oliveira

In many regions of the globe, the seismic data associated with higher magnitude seismic events usable in the characterization of the seismic hazard is scarce. Therefore, seismologists have been estimating the magnitude and probable epicentral location of historical earthquakes using the historical records and intensity scales to map the observed damage. Another method, employed by earthquake engineers, uses fragility functions, a ground motion model and the Bayes’ theorem to estimate the probable magnitude of historical seismic events. Nevertheless, this method requires assembling an approach consistent with the local seismicity and building stock of the period of reference. This paper implements and validates an approach for the estimation of the magnitude of historical seismic events in Azores Islands, Portugal, that uses fragility functions. In order to carry out this study, data from the damage surveys, a vulnerability distribution and approximate epicentral positions of the 1998 Faial earthquake Mw = 6.0–6.2, as well as a specific attenuation model, are utilized in a calibration phase. The vulnerability index methodology is employed to derive fragility functions from a detailed vulnerability assessment. Afterwards, the approach is validated using analogous data corresponding to the 1980 Terceira earthquake Mw = 6.8–7.2. The different assumptions and results are discussed and compared. The results show that this approach can model expected magnitude values with accuracy: Mw = 6.01–5.76 for the 1998 Faial and Mw = 6.90–6.55 for the 1980 Terceira earthquakes. Additionally, the real PGAs may have been in several locations lower than those predicted by the selected ground motion equation.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.102000

Effects of sea level rise on salinity and tidal flooding patterns in the Guadiana Estuary

Lara Mills, João Janeiro, Flávio Martins

Sea level rise is a worldwide concern as a high percentage of the population is located in coastal areas. The focus of this study is the impact of sea level rise in the Guadiana Estuary, an estuary in the Iberian Peninsula formed at the interface of the Guadiana River and the Gulf of Cadiz. Estuaries will be impacted by sea level rise as these transitional environments host highly diverse and complex marine ecosystems. The major consequences of sea level rise are the intrusion of salt from the sea into fresh water and an increase in flooding area. As the physical, chemical, and biological components of estuaries are sensitive to changes in salinity, the purpose of this study is to further evaluate salt intrusion in the Guadiana Estuary caused by sea level rise. Hydrodynamics of the Guadiana Estuary were simulated in a two-dimensional numerical model with the MOHID water modeling system. A previously developed hydrodynamic model was implemented to further examine changes in salinity distribution in the estuary in response to sea level rise. Varying tidal amplitudes, freshwater discharge from the Guadiana River and bathymetries of the estuary were incorporated in the model to fully evaluate the impacts of sea level rise on salinity distribution and flooding areas of the estuary. Results show an overall increase in salinity and land inundation in the estuary in response to sea level rise.

 

https://doi.org/10.2166/wcc.2021.202

Science communication for social inclusion: exploring science & art approaches

Ana Matias, Andreia Dias, Cláudia Gonçalves, Paulo Nuno Vicente and Ana Lúcia Mena

Engaging communities at risk of social exclusion poses a big challenge for science communicators. We schematize a framework for projects using science & art to promote social inclusion, composed of 3 phases — design, plan and collaboration; implementation; and evaluation. We present a case study that aimed to engage with a community of migrant senior women, mostly illiterate. Our findings suggest high engagement was achieved by building trust, involving emotions, choosing a relatable topic and following participatory practices. Inclusive activities occurred on the short-term, but for medium-term impact, community insiders need to be regarded as a second audience.

https://doi.org/10.22323/2.20020205

Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks and Burial Rates in Intertidal Vegetated Habitats of a Mesotidal Coastal Lagoon

Márcio Martins, Carmen B. de los Santos, Pere Masqué, A. Rita Carrasco, Cristina Veiga-Pires & Rui Santos

Coastal vegetated ecosystems such as saltmarshes and seagrasses are important sinks of organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (TN), with large global and local variability, driven by the confluence of many physical and ecological factors. Here we show that sedimentary OC and TN stocks of intertidal saltmarsh (Sporobolus maritimus) and seagrass (Zostera noltei) habitats increased between two- and fourfold along a decreasing flow velocity gradient in Ria Formosa lagoon (south Portugal). A similar twofold increase was also observed for OC and TN burial rates of S. maritimus and of almost one order of magnitude for Z. noltei. Stable isotope mixing models identify allochthonous particulate organic matter as the main source to the sedimentary pools in both habitats (39–68%). This is the second estimate of OC stocks and the first of OC burial rates in Z. noltei, a small, fast-growing species that is widely distributed in Europe (41,000 ha) and which area is presently expanding (8600 ha in 2000s). Its wide range of OC stocks (29–99 Mg ha−1) and burial rates (15–122 g m2 y−1) observed in Ria Formosa highlight the importance of investigating the drivers of such variability to develop global blue carbon models. The TN stocks (7–11 Mg ha−1) and burial rates (2–4 g m−2 y−1) of Z. noltei were generally higher than seagrasses elsewhere. The OC and TN stocks (29–101 and 3–11 Mg ha−1, respectively) and burial rates (19–39 and 3–5 g m−2 y−1) in S. maritimus saltmarshes are generally lower than those located in estuaries subjected to larger accumulation of terrestrial organic matter.

 

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10021-021-00660-6

Ervilia castanea (Mollusca, Bivalvia) populations adversely affected at CO2 seeps in the North Atlantic

Marta Martins, Marina Carreiro-Silva, Gustavo M.Martins, Joana Barcelos e Ramos, Fátima Viveiros, Ruben P.Couto, Hugo Parra, João Monteiro, Francesca Gallo, Catarina Silva, Alexandra Teodósio, Katja Guilini, Jason M.Hall-Spencer, Francisco Leitão, Luís Chícharo, Pedro Range

Sites with naturally high CO2 conditions provide unique opportunities to forecast the vulnerability of coastal ecosystems to ocean acidification, by studying the biological responses and potential adaptations to this increased environmental variability. In this study, we investigated the bivalve Ervilia castanea in coastal sandy sediments at reference sites and at volcanic CO2 seeps off the Azores, where the pH of bottom waters ranged from average oceanic levels of 8.2, along gradients, down to 6.81, in carbonated seawater at the seeps. The bivalve population structure changed markedly at the seeps. Large individuals became less abundant as seawater CO2 levels rose and were completely absent from the most acidified sites. In contrast, small bivalves were most abundant at the CO2 seeps. We propose that larvae can settle and initially live in high abundances under elevated CO2 levels, but that high rates of post-settlement dispersal and/or mortality occur. Ervilia castanea were susceptible to elevated CO2 levels and these effects were consistently associated with lower food supplies. This raises concerns about the effects of ocean acidification on the brood stock of this species and other bivalve molluscs with similar life history traits.

 

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142044

Carboniferous palynoevents in the circum-Arctic region

Gunn Manderud, Gilda Lopes, Jonathan Bujak

The Carboniferous of the present-day Arctic yields an abundant and diverse association of terrestrial palynomorphs, particularly from Mississippian successions. Relatively few sections have been studied. However, those published so far demonstrate considerable similarities in the palynofloras between Arctic regions. Based on the published record, we present a compilation of 31 last occurrences (LOs), first occurrences (FOs), and some abundance events that have correlation potential around the Arctic. The chronostratigraphic resolution is relatively low, and the lack of independent age control hampers exact age assignments. But for most of these successions, palynology is the only dating tool available.

 

https://doi.org/10.4138/atlgeol.2021.003

Late Permian palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Matinde Formation in the Muarádzi Sub-basin, Moatize-Minjova Basin, Mozambique

Gilda Lopes, Zélia Pereira, Paulo Fernandes, Márcia Mendes, João Marques, Raul C.G.S.Jorge

A multidisciplinary study involving lithofacies analysis, palynofacies, and palynology is presented for the Muarádzi Sub-basin. This sub-basin is part of the Moatize-Minjova Basin (MMB), an important Karoo aged coalfield in Mozambique.

A total of 99 core samples from 3 coal exploration boreholes (DW11, DW21, and DW141) were analysed and all the successions were assigned a Lopingian age based on palynology. According to the data, in the Muarádzi Sub-basin, a vast lowland fluvial setting existed with floodplains and wetlands, in an area controlled by tectonic movements associated with a continental rifting phase. Typical vegetation of the Glossopteris Province is recorded in the palynological assemblages of this sub-basin, which allowed for the characterization of a flora dominated by glossopterids (Protohaploxypinus and Striatopodocarpites) and gymnosperm pollen (Alisporites). Other palynomorphs revealed the presence of gingkoales, ferns (Filicopsida), sphenopsids, and lycopsids in the area, indicating a typical lowland setting. Humid and warm climates, associated with higher CO2 atmospheric levels, promoted the growth of widespread vegetation that led to the development of the thick coal beds in anoxic to dysoxic depositional environments.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2021.104138

Permian stratigraphy and palynology of the Lower Karoo Group in Mozambique – a 2020 perspective

Lopes, Gilda; Pereira, Zélia; Fernandes, Paulo; Marques, João; Mendes, Márcia; Götz, Annette E.

In the past decade, the increase in the number of palynological works in Mozambique documents the significance of palynology in dating the late Palaeozoic basins in this region of southwestern Gondwana. The new information gained mainly from the study of the Moatize-Minjova Coal Basin is the basis for a better understanding of the regional biostratigraphy, as well as of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic conditions during the Permian. Here we provide a review on the Permian palynostratigraphy and its implications for lithostratigraphic correlation of Lower Karoo basins in Mozambique. The new biostratigraphic information leads to the conclusion that an age update for the lithostratigraphic units established for the Lower Karoo in Mozambique (Vúzi, Moatize, and Matinde formations) is most needed. The Cisuralian palynological association in Mozambique is characterized by long-range taxa recorded since the middle Cisuralian (Sakmarian to Artinskian) (Alisporites spp., Cannanoropollis spp., Horriditriletes spp., Laevigatosporites spp., Potonieisporites spp., Protohaploxypinus spp.). Several first occurrences are also recorded in the late Cisuralian (Kungurian) (e.g., Cirratriradites africanensis, Marsupipollenites triradiatus, and Vittatina spp.). The Guadalupian association is mainly characterized by taxa that extend their range since the Cisuralian (e.g., Alisporites spp., Cirratriradites africanensis, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Horriditriletes ramosus, Kraeuselisporites enormis, Lueckisporites virkkiae, Limitisporites monstruosus, Marsupipollenites striatus, M. triradiatus, Pakhapites fusus, Platysaccus papilionis, Thymospora pseudothiessenii, and Weylandites lucifer), with only few first occurrences (Lueckisporites virkkiae, Striatopodocarpites cancellatus, and S. fusus) and last occurrences (Cirratriradites africanensis, Limitisporites monstruosos) being recorded. The Lopingian palynological association includes most of the taxa described for the Guadalupian. In contrast, Corisaccites alutas, Indotriradites niger, Klausipollenites schaubergeri, Lunatisporites pellucidus, Osmundacidites senectus, Polypodiisporites spp., P. mutabilis, and Protohaploxypinus microcorpus are recorded for the first time. Indication of the proximity to the Permian-Triassic Boundary is supported by the occurrence of Klausipollenites schaubergeri, Protohaploxypinus microcorpus, and Osmundacidites senectus in the upper part of the Matinde Formation. Based on the palynological data, the oldest rock unit, the Vúzi Formation, was deposited in the Permian (middle Cisuralian), and no older sedimentary rocks are currently known for the Lower Karoo Group in Mozambique. The palynological associations described also indicate that the deposition of the Moatize Formation occurred from the middle Cisuralian to the latest Guadalupian/early Lopingian, whilst the deposition of the Matinde Formation lasted from the late Guadalupian to the latest Lopingian. Thus, the boundary between both formations is assumed to be diachronous.

https://doi.org/10.1127/NOS/2021/0618

Palynostratigraphic reassessment of the Late Devonian of Bjørnøya, Svalbard

Gilda Lopes, Gunn Mangerud, Geoff Clayton, Jorunn Os Vigran

A comprehensive study of the Late Devonian palynostratigraphy of Bjørnøya, Svalbard Archipelago is presented. A total of 61 samples collected from 10 outcrops located along the eastern coast of the island were analyzed for palynology yielding a mid- to latest Famennian age. A reassessment of the existing palynostratigraphy of the Ursa Sandstone Unit of the Røedvika Formation was undertaken. As no independent age control exists for this succession, the palynological assemblages were correlated to well-calibrated palynological zonations from the Eastern and Western Europe. The middle to upper part of the Vesalstranda Member and the Kapp Levin Member were assigned a mid- to late Famennian age (CVa to VF biozones), and the middle to lower-upper part of the Tunheim Member was dated as latest Famennian in age (LL to LN biozones). For the first time, a palynological age was assigned to the upper part of the Kapp Levin Member. Correlation with other Arctic areas show close resemblance to Late Devonian assemblages from Europe and the Arctic region. However, differences in the stratigraphical ranges of several taxa were identified. In terms of Late Devonian paleophytogeographic provinces the miospore assemblages are assigned to the Northern Euroamerican Cornispora varicornata Realm for the mid-Famennian. A more cosmopolitan trend was recognized for the latest Famennian (Strunian), with assemblages including abundant Retispora lepidophyta. The paleobotanical affinities of the palynomorphs reveal a flora of lycopods and progymnosperms occupying this area during the Late Devonian, with Retispora lepidophyta becoming a common element in the latest Famennian.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2020.104376

Simulating Destructive and Constructive Morphodynamic Processes in Steep Beaches

Katerina Kombiadou,Susana Costas and Dano Roelvink

Short-term beach morphodynamics are typically modelled solely through storm-induced erosion, disregarding post-storm recovery. Yet, the full cycle of beach profile response is critical to simulating and understanding morphodynamics over longer temporal scales. The XBeach model is calibrated using topographic profiles from a reflective beach (Faro Beach, in S. Portugal) during and after the incidence of a fierce storm (Emma) that impacted the area in early 2018. Recovery in all three profiles showed rapid steepening of the beachface and significant recovery of eroded volumes (68–92%) within 45 days after the storm, while berm heights reached 4.5–5 m. Two calibration parameters were used (facua and bermslope), considering two sets of values, one for erosive (Hm0 ≥ 3 m) and one for accretive (Hm0 < 3 m) conditions. A correction of the runup height underestimation by the model in surfbeat mode was necessary to reproduce the measured berm elevation and morphology during recovery. Simulated profiles effectively capture storm erosion, but also berm growth and gradual recovery of the profiles, showing good skill in all three profiles and recovery phases. These experiments will be the basis to formulate event-scale simulations using schematized wave forcing that will allow to calibrate the model for longer-term changes.

https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010086

Estimation of river flow using CubeSats remote sensing

Adriano M.Junqueira, Feng Mao, Tatiana S.G.Mendes, Silvio J.C.Simões, José A.P.Balestieri, David M.Hannah

River flow characterizes the integrated response from watersheds, so it is essential to quantify to understand the changing water cycle and underpin the sustainable management of freshwaters. However, river gauging stations are in decline with ground-based observation networks shrinking. This study proposes a novel approach of estimating river flows using the Planet CubeSats constellation with the possibility to monitor on a daily basis at the sub-catchment scale through remote sensing. The methodology relates the river discharge to the water area that is extracted from the satellite image analysis. As a testbed, a series of Surface Reflectance PlanetScope images and observed streamflow data in Araguaia River (Brazil) were selected to develop and validate the methodology. The study involved the following steps: (1) survey of measurements of water level and river discharge using in-situ data from gauge-based Conventional Station (CS) and measurements of altimetry using remote data from JASON-2 Virtual Station (JVS); (2) survey of Planet CubeSat images for dates in step 1 and without cloud cover; (3) image preparation including clipping based on different buffer areas and calculation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) per image; (4) water bodies areas calculation inside buffers in the Planet CubeSat images; and (5) correlation analysis of CubeSat water bodies areas with JVS and CS data. Significant correlations between the water bodies areas with JVS (R2 = 88.83%) and CS (R2 = 96.49%) were found, indicating that CubeSat images can be used as a CubeSat Virtual Station (CVS) to estimate the river flow. This newly proposed methodology using CubeSats allows for more accurate results than the JVS-based method used by the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA) at present. Moreover, CVS requires small areas of remote sensing data to estimate with high accuracy the river flow and the height variation of the water in different timeframes. This method can be used to monitor sub-basin scale discharge and to improve water management, particularly in developing countries where the presence of conventional stations is often very limited.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147762

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) adsorbed to polyethylene microplastics: Accumulation and ecotoxicological effects in the clam Scrobicularia plana

Naimul Islam, Tainá Garcia da Fonseca, Juliano Vilke, Joanna M.Gonçalves, Paulo Pedro, Steffen Keiter, Sara C.Cunha, José O.Fernandes, M.J.Bebianno

Microplastics are widespread in the marine environment, whereby the uptake of these tiny particles by organisms, can cause adverse biological responses. Plastic debris also act as a vector of many contaminants, herein depending on type, size, shape and chemical properties, possibly intensifying their effects on marine organisms. This study aimed to assess the accumulation and potential toxicity of different sizes of microplastics with and without adsorbed perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in the clam Scrobicularia plana. Clams were exposed to low-density polyethylene microplastics (1 mg L−1) of two different sizes (4–6 and 20–25 μm) virgin and contaminated with PFOS (55.7 ± 5.3 and 46.1 ± 2.9 μg g−1 respectively) over 14 days. Microplastic ingestion, PFOS accumulation and filtration rate were determined along with a multi biomarker approach to assess the biological effects of microplastics ingestion. Biomarkers include oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidases), biotransformation enzymes (glutathione-S-transferases activity), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity), oxidative damage and apoptosis. Microplastics ingestion and PFOS accumulation was microplastic size dependent but not PFOS dependent and filtration rate was reduced at the end of the exposure. Reactive oxygen species in gills and digestive gland were generated as a result of exposure to both types of microplastics, confirming the disturbance of the antioxidant system. Larger virgin microparticles lead to stronger impacts, when compared to smaller ones which was also supported by the Integrated Biomarker Responses index calculated for both tissues. An anti-apoptotic response was detected in digestive glands under exposure to any of the MPs treatments.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105249

Nanoplastics impact on marine biota: A review

Joanna M.Gonçalves and Maria João Bebianno

Emerging contaminants, such as nanoplastics, are gaining a vast interest within the scientific community. Most of the plastic debris found in the marine environment originates from land-based sources, and once in the marine environment, plastic can be degraded into smaller fragments. Nanoplastics are considered to fall within the definition of other nanoparticles (1–100 nm in size) and may be divided into primary or secondary nanoplastics. Primary nanoplastics are those that enter the environment in their original small size associated with specific applications and consumer products, whilst secondary nanoplastics are a consequence of macro/microplastic degradation. The formation of nanoplastics changes the physical-chemical characteristics of the particle, thus at a nanoscale, it is expected that the strength, conductivity, and reactivity of the nanoparticles will differ substantially from macro/micro-sized particles. To date, the toxicity nanoplastics may pursue on marine biota is still scarce. Herein, a review of the available data on the effects of different polymer types of nanoplastics specific to marine biota is accounted for.

 

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116426

Biochemical Characterization of the Amylase Activity from the New Haloarchaeal Strain Haloarcula sp. HS Isolated in the Odiel Marshlands

Patricia Gómez-Villegas,Javier Vigara,Luis Romero,Cecilia Gotor,Sara Raposo,Brígida Gonçalves and Rosa Léon

Alpha-amylases are a large family of α,1-4-endo-glycosyl hydrolases distributed in all kingdoms of life. The need for poly-extremotolerant amylases encouraged their search in extreme environments, where archaea become ideal candidates to provide new enzymes that are able to work in the harsh conditions demanded in many industrial applications. In this study, a collection of haloarchaea isolated from Odiel saltern ponds in the southwest of Spain was screened for their amylase activity. The strain that exhibited the highest activity was selected and identified as Haloarcula sp. HS. We demonstrated the existence in both, cellular and extracellular extracts of the new strain, of functional α-amylase activities, which showed to be moderately thermotolerant (optimum around 60 °C), extremely halotolerant (optimum over 25% NaCl), and calcium-dependent. The tryptic digestion followed by HPLC-MS/MS analysis of the partially purified cellular and extracellular extracts allowed to identify the sequence of three alpha-amylases, which despite sharing a low sequence identity, exhibited high three-dimensional structure homology, conserving the typical domains and most of the key consensus residues of α-amylases. Moreover, we proved the potential of the extracellular α-amylase from Haloarcula sp. HS to treat bakery wastes under high salinity conditions.

 

https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10040337

Effects of Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Quality and Shelf-Life of Gray Triggerfish (Balistes capriscus) Fillets

Eduardo Esteves, Luís Guerra and Jaime Aníbal

Seafood products are perceived as healthy foods. However, several species of seafood are still not fully utilized for different reasons or can be valued outside the original locale, if issues with the short shelf-life and/or the preparation/presentation form are overcome, e.g., gray triggerfish, Balistes capriscus. Consumed mostly fresh, its flesh is of excellent quality. We studied the effect of different types of packaging (in air (AIR), vacuum (VP), and modified atmosphere (MAP)) on physicochemical (color and texture, pH, and total volatile basic nitrogen), microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic, sulphide-reducing bacteria, and acid-lactic bacteria), and sensory qualities, and shelf-life of gray triggerfish fillets stored at refrigeration temperature for 15 days. The samples were analyzed on days 0 (fresh fish), 5, 10 (8 and 12 for sensory analysis), and 15 after filleting and packaging. During the trial, fillets became lighter (increased L*) and yellower (b* >> 0) with time of storage. Distinct patterns were observed for pH among treatments. Unexpectedly, the increasing trend observed in the texturometer-derived hardness of VP and MAP fillets, contrasted with the sensory assessment, wherein panelists perceived a clear softening of fillets. VP delayed and MAP inhibited the increase in TVB-N contents of fillets compared to fillets packed in AIR. Total viable count and psychrothropic bacteria of fillets in AIR exceeded the conventional limit of 7 log(CFU/g) on day 10, while in fillets packed in VP and MAP, their abundance remained below that limit during the trial. The organoleptic attributes of fillets perceived by a sensory panel changed significantly in all treatments during the storage trial. Willingness to consume the fillets decreased constantly in AIR and MAP, but not in VP fillets. Considering primarily sensory, but also biochemical and microbiological parameters, namely panelists’ rejection, total volatile basic nitrogen content, and total viable count and psychrotrophic bacteria abundance, the shelf-life of fillets packed in air was eight days. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging extended the shelf-life to 15 and 12 days, and thus can add value to this product. Future research regarding the VP and MAP of gray triggerfish fillets could involve the optimization of mixtures of gases use and/or the application of combined processes.

https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020250

Sensory evaluation of seafood freshness using the quality index method: A meta-analysis

Eduardo Esteves, Jaime Aníbal

The quality index method (QIM) is a leading method of assessing the freshness (and thus quality) of seafood that is based on relatively few sensory attributes considered relevant. These characteristics are scored using a 0 to 3 demerit points' scale, the sum of which is designated the quality index (QI) and quantifies the specimens' lack of freshness. The linear relationship between QI and storage time allows for the estimation of remaining shelf-life. Moreover, QIM is deemed species-specific.

Meta-analysis was carried to attest the species-specificity of QIM schemes or if, otherwise, biological, ecological, procedural and methodological parameters, alone or in combination, justify schemes' categorization. The variation among the QIM schemes was analyzed using random/mixed-effects models of 68 primary studies. The correlation coefficient associated with linear relationship between the QIM scores and storage time was the designated effect.

This study is the first to use of meta-analysis to summarize QIM schemes developed since the inception of the method in the early 1980s. The initial random-effects meta-analysis model indicated that the correlation coefficients associated with QIM averaged 0.982 (95% CI: 0.978–0.986). The considerable remaining heterogeneity (Q = 152.06, p < 0.0008) was further investigated as a function of moderator variables. Several moderator variables, per se or in combination, namely seafood group (bluefish, whitefish, Selachii, cephalopods and crustaceans), storage procedure (ice, water, air, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging) and temperature (°C), family and habitat (marine and freshwater), and maximum number of demerit points in QIM were found to have significant effects (QM, 0.0002 < p < 0.0919) on correlation coefficients derived from QIM schemes. Notwithstanding, at this stage of the analysis none clearly justified the categorization of QIM schemes since substantial residual heterogeneity remained unexplained in almost every case and there were issues with influential studies. Then, in a mixed-effects meta-analysis of a subset of studies for whole specimens stored in ice, seafood groups and maximum number of demerit points were found to be significant moderators (QM, p = 0.0018 and p = 0.0173, respectively). Correlation coefficients were higher in studies developing QIM schemes for cephalopods compared to the other seafood groups and in studies with lower sum of demerit points. The potential issues with publication bias and influence analysis are discussed. We cannot rule out the species-specificity of QIM schemes that have been stated previously and that constitutes a relative advantage compared to other methods of assessment seafood freshness based on sensory analysis, particularly the EU grading scheme.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108934

 

Place attachment, risk perception, and preparedness in a population exposed to coastal hazards: A case study in Faro Beach, southern Portugal

Rita B.Domingues, Saúl Neves de Jesus, Óscar Ferreira

Living by the coast is a high-risk choice, but most people do it voluntarily. At Faro Beach, a heavily urbanized settlement located on a sandy barrier peninsula exposed to coastal hazards, houses and roads were destroyed due to storm action. However, residents feel safe living there and have no intentions of relocating. The development and implementation of coastal management plans and disaster risk reduction measures require the understanding of psychological drivers of residents' risk perception and behaviours. Thus, the main goal of this study is to evaluate the relationships between place attachment, risk perception, and preparedness in Faro Beach. We hypothesized that place attachment and past experience with hazards would have a negative effect on risk perception, while risk perception would positively influence preparedness. We administered a self-report questionnaire to 131 residents, and analysed the data using partial least squares modelling. Results show that stronger place attachment is associated with lower risk perception, as residents tend to accept the risk as part of their environment. Experience contributed to higher risk perception in Faro Beach residents, most likely because residents have had direct and personal experience with hazards and are fully aware of the consequences. In addition, risk perception was negatively associated with preparedness; although residents’ risk perception is moderate, probably due to risk normalisation, they still make some preparations to deal with a potential disaster. This study is useful for the design and implementation of more sustainable coastal management plans, as it validates the relevance of affective variables in risk perception and preparedness.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102288

The structure of incipient coastal counter currents in South Portugal as indicator of their forcing agents

L. De Oliveira Júnior, E.Garel, P.Relvas

The alongshore subtidal water circulation along the South Portugal inner shelf is characterized by the temporal alternation of equatorward (i.e., broadly eastward) flows related to coastal upwelling processes and poleward (i.e., broadly westward) Coastal Counter Currents (CCCs). The objective of this study is to get insights about the main drivers of CCCs based on kinematic parameters describing the structure of the flow at the moment it changes direction. The parameters are derived from an extensive bottom-mounted ADCP dataset (16 deployments; 34,121 hourly records) collected at a single mooring (23 m water depth). Results show that the so-called incipient flows present contrasted general patterns whether they turn from equatorward to poleward or the opposite. Complementary observations at a nearby station indicate that these characteristics are spatially consistent along the studied area. Although 70% of CCCs are generated under favourable wind conditions (Levanter), these flows generally develop through the bed layer, in particular in summer. Hence, the Levanter wind - expected to promote flow setup through the surface layer - is not the main driver of CCCs in most cases. The general structure of incipient CCCs strongly suggests that the dominant force competing with the wind stress is an alongshore pressure gradient (APG). Furthermore, the maximum equatorward flow magnitude before CCCs setup is significantly correlated with the following (poleward) acceleration of incipient CCCs near the bed. Such relation is consistent with the development of CCCs due to the unbalance of an APG (produced during active upwelling) when wind relaxes. This process is further supported by an analysis of the depth-averaged momentum equation which suggests that the coastal circulation is mainly driven by linear dynamics in the region.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2020.103486

Metal Bioaccumulation by the Neotropical Clam Anomalocardia flexuosa to Estimate the Quality of Estuarine Sediments

Ana C. F. Cruz, Guacira F. E. Pauly, Giuliana S. Araujo, Paloma Gusso-Choueri, Tainá G. Fonseca, Bruno G. Campos, Ricardo E. Santelli, A. S. Freire, Bernardo F. Braz, Alice Bosco-Santos, Wanilson Luiz-Silva, Wilson Machado & Denis M. S. Abessa

This investigation evaluated the bioaccumulation potential of the tropical estuarine bivalve Anomalocardia flexuosa for trace metals. To this aim, chemical and sedimentological analyses and bioaccumulation tests were performed. The sediments were mainly composed by fine-sands and mud, with variable levels of organic matter and CaCO3. Muddy sediments from a depositional site (P2) presented the highest concentrations of metals, despite SEM/AVS not indicating bioavailability. Bioaccumulation factors showed high ratios for Cd, Ni, and Zn, while associations between the contents of mud, organic matter, CaCO3 and metals in sediments and tissues of A. flexuosa were indicated by a principal component analysis. The SEM/AVS was not effective to predict the bioavailability through dissolved metals. The results showed that contaminants were bioavailable, while the performed bioaccumulation test proved to be a reliable technique for assessing sediment contamination in estuarine regions. Moreover, A. flexuosa was considered an adequate test organism for bioaccumulation studies.

https://doi.org/10.1007/S00128-020-03062-X

Alternative chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis strategy applied to different microalgae species for bioethanol production

A.Constantino, B.Rodrigues, R.Leon, R.Barros, S.Raposo

Microalgae have been considered third generation feedstock for biofuel production based on the expectation that large amounts of algal biomass can be cultivated at an acceptable cost. Transformation of biomass into ethanol requires a saccharification step, where complex carbohydrates are broken down by hydrolysis into sugars that can be fermented to bioethanol. Carbohydrate mobilization is hampered by the recalcitrance of the cell envelope of microalgal cells, because complex structural polysaccharides are difficult to depolymerize and make internal carbohydrate reserves inaccessible to hydrolysis. Saccharification can be accomplished by either acidic hydrolysis, enzymatic treatment or a combination of both.

The present work focused on the chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of lyophilized biomass of different microalgae and subsequent fermentation of hydrolysates with higher reducing sugar content. A chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis strategy was defined, consisting of an acid pretreatment carried out at high pressure and temperature, followed by incubation with Amyloglucosidase and finally by incubation with α-Amylase, the opposite order of the conventional use of these enzymes. An increase of reducing sugar yield of about one third was observed, and this strategy was successfully applied to a broad group of microalgae, resulting in maximum release yields of at least 34.0 ± 1.0 g total reducing sugar/100 g dry biomass.

For bioethanol production studies, the microalgae hydrolysates of Chlorella sorokiniana, Tetraselmis sp. (Necton) and Skeletonema sp. were selected according to their high reducing sugar content. High ethanol production was achieved with all hydrolysates, with ethanol yields close to the theoretical maximum and the highest ethanol concentrations so far reported under comparable conditions. Chlorella sorokiniana stood out as the best hydrolysate for ethanol production, with an ethanol yield of 0.464 ± 0.013 g/g reducing sugar and ethanol productivity of 0.344 ± 0.020 g/ L.h.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102329

Drought, fire and grazing precursors to large-scale pine forest decline

Simon E. Connor, João Araújo, Tomasz Boski, Ana Gomes, Sandra D. Gomes, Manel Leira, Maria da Conceição Freitas,Cesar Andrade, César Morales-Molino, Fátima Franco-Múgica, Rufus B. Akindola, Boris Vannière

Temperate forests are currently facing multiple stresses due to climate change, biological invasions, habitat fragmentation and fire regime change. How these stressors interact with each other influences how, when and whether ecosystems recover, or whether they adapt or transition to a different ecological state. Because forest recovery or collapse may take longer than a human lifetime, predicting the outcomes of different stressor combinations remains difficult. A clearer vision of future forest trajectories in a changing world may be gained by examining collapses of forests in the past. Here, we use long-term ecological data to conduct a post-mortem examination of the decline of maritime pine forests (Pinus pinaster Ait.) on the SW Iberian Peninsula 7000–6500 years ago.

 

https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.13261

Effect of Using Multi-Year Land Use Land Cover and Monthly LAI Inputs on the Calibration of a Distributed Hydrologic Model

Ibrahim Olayode Busari, Mehmet Cüneyd Demirel, and Alice Newton

Effective management of water resources entails the understanding of spatiotemporal changes in hydrologic fluxes with variation in land use, especially with a growing trend of urbanization, agricultural lands and non-stationarity of climate. This study explores the use of satellite-based Land Use Land Cover (LULC) data while simultaneously correcting potential evapotranspiration (PET) input with Leaf Area Index (LAI) to increase the performance of a physically distributed hydrologic model. The mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) was selected for this purpose due to its unique features. Since LAI input informs the model about vegetation dynamics, we incorporated the LAI based PET correction option together with multi-year LULC data. The Globcover land cover data was selected for the single land cover cases, and hybrid of CORINE (coordination of information on the environment) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) land cover datasets were chosen for the cases with multiple land cover datasets. These two datasets complement each other since MODIS has no separate forest class but more frequent (yearly) observations than CORINE. Calibration period spans from 1990 to 2006 and corresponding NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency) values varies between 0.23 and 0.42, while the validation period spans from 2007 to 2010 and corresponding NSE values are between 0.13 and 0.39. The results revealed that the best performance is obtained when multiple land cover datasets are provided to the model and LAI data is used to correct PET, instead of default aspect-based PET correction in mHM. This study suggests that to minimize errors due to parameter uncertainties in physically distributed hydrologic models, adequate information can be supplied to the model with care taken to avoid over-parameterizing the model.

https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111538

 

Short-term effects of winter warming and high CO2 on phytoplankton growth and mortality: more losers than winners in a temperate coastal lagoon

Domingues, R.B., Barreto, M., Galvão, H.M., Brotas, V. & Barbosa, A.B.

Changes in temperature and CO2 are typically associated with climate change, but they also act on shorter time scales, leading to alterations in phytoplankton physiology and community structure. Interactions among stressors may cause synergistic or antagonistic effects on phytoplankton dynamics. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to understand the short-term isolated and interactive effects of warming and high CO2 on phytoplankton nutrient consumption, growth, production, and community structure in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon (southern Portugal). We performed microcosm experiments with temperature and CO2 manipulation, and dilution experiments under temperature increase, using winter phytoplankton assemblages. Phytoplankton responses were evaluated using inverted and epifluorescence microscopy. Overall, phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing on phytoplankton decreased with warming. Negative antagonist interactions with CO2 alleviated the negative effect of temperature on phytoplankton and cryptophytes. In contrast, higher temperature benefited smaller-sized phytoplankton, namely cyanobacteria and eukaryotic picophytoplankton. Diatom growth was not affected by temperature, probably due to nutrient limitation, but high CO2 had a positive effect on diatoms, alleviating the effect of nutrient limitation. Results suggest that this winter phytoplankton assemblage is well acclimated to ambient conditions, and short-term increases in temperature are detrimental, but can be alleviated by high CO2.

10.1007/s10750-021-04672-0

Short-term effects of winter warming and acidification on phytoplankton growth and mortality: more losers than winners in a temperate coastal lagoon | SpringerLink

Formation History and Material Budget of Holocene Shelf Mud Depocenters in the Gulf of Cadiz

Hanebuth, T., King, M.L., Lobo, F.J. & Mendes, I.

Mud depocenters (MDCs) are common elements on modern continental shelves and act as a major shallow-marine sink for fluviogenic material. These most proximal depocenters, thus, play a major role in material cycling and carbon availability on global and regional scales, though individual formation history, dependence on external forcing mechanisms, and material composition makes each of them a unique case. This study establishes a chronostratigraphic framework and deciphers the depositional dynamics for the two main MDCs on the continental shelf in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz, as a prime example, with the goal to calculate a regional sediment and carbon budget. Based on the analysis of 2040 km of subbottom profiles and 18 sediment cores, the fine-grained depocenters began to grow during maximum flooding around 6.5 cal ka BP. Sedimentation rates ranged between 2 and 35 cm/ka until 2.7 cal ka BP and increased significantly around the Roman Warm Period (30–200 cm/ka), caused by regional humidification as well as mining and agricultural activities. After 1.0 cal ka BP, sedimentation rates rose further (20–3000 cm/ka), due to land clearing in coincidence with erosion-favoring aridity during the Islamic period and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Unprecedented sediment accumulation started with the Industrial Era. The total sediment volume of the two MDCs is 5.80 km3 with a dry mass of 12,971 Mt. 85 Mt of organic matter and 3637 Mt of carbonate make this depocenter an important shallow-marine sink, with a total of 521 Mt carbon as a significant player in the regional terrestrial-marine carbon cycle.

421, 105956.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2021.105956

Antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitory potential of Euphorbia resinifera and E. officinarum honeys from Morocco and plant aqueous extracts

Boutoub, O., El-Guendouz, S., Estevinho, L.M. Paula, V., Aazza, S., Ghadraoui, L., Rodrigues, B., Raposo, S., Carlier, J., Costa, M.C. & Miguel, M.G.

Natural products may be applied in a wide range of domains, from agriculture to food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the antioxidant properties and the capacity to inhibit some enzymatic activities of Euphorbia resinifera and Euphorbia officinarum aqueous extracts and honeys were assessed. The physicochemical characteristics were also evaluated. Higher amounts of iron, copper and aluminium were detected in E. officinarum honey, which may indicate environmental pollution around the beehives or inadequate storage of honey samples. This honey sample showed higher amounts of total phenols and better capacity for scavenging superoxide anion free radicals and DPPH free radicals as compared with E. resinifera honey, but poorer capacity for inhibiting lipoxygenase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase. The ratio plant mass:solvent volume (1:100) and extraction time (1 - 2 h) were associated with higher total phenols and better antioxidant activities and lipoxygenase, acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, regardless of the plant species. The aqueous extracts had systematically higher in vitro activities than the respective honey samples.

Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 503–517.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10489-6

Biochemical tools to evaluate the potential impact of effluent discharges on Ruditapes decussatus

Silva, S., Cravo, A., Rodrigues, J., Correia, C. & Almeida, C. M. M.

The use of biomarkers in bivalves has gained significance as a reliable method for the assessment of the presence and effect of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. However, it is important to note that the biomarkers respond not only to contaminant loadings and bioavailability but also to environmental stress. Therefore, the association between biomarkers and contamination/pollution should be conducted cautiously as the environmental factors also affect their response. These factors should be integrated into the assessment of the response of the biomarkers. The potential impact of effluents from an urban wastewater treatment plant (UWWTP) on the Ruditapes decussatus clam specimens located 1.5 Km away in a surrounding area was evaluated. After one month of exposure, three biomarkers were analyzed, namely lipid peroxidation (LPO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and electron transport system (ETS). These parameters were also determined for a control group purchased from a local nursery, which had no influence from UWWTP, in order to compare the results obtained from both groups. The in situ physicochemical characterization of the exposure site (temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen) was evaluated together with nutritional parameters, morphometric measurements and condition index. The biochemical analysis showed that the activity levels of AChE fluctuated from 4.0 to 4.6 nmol/min g protein and that of LPO from 101.5 to 248.9 nmol MDA/g protein. Also, the ETS activity levels were in the range of 27.2 to 30.2 nmol O2/min g protein. The lipid peroxidation was found to be the most responsive biomarker toward the damage caused by environmental conditions on the clams.

2766-6190.

http://dx.doi.org/10.21926/aeer.2102015

Eletronic Waste, an Environmental Problem Exported to Developing Countries: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

Abalansa, S., Mahrad, B, Icely, J. & Newton, A.

Electronic waste (e-waste) is a rapidly developing environmental problem particularly for the most developed countries. There are technological solutions for processing it, but these are costly, and the cheaper option for most developed countries has been to export most of the waste to less developed countries. There are various laws and policies for regulating the processing of e-waste at different governance scales such as the international Basel Convention, the regional Bamoko Convention, and various national laws. However, many of the regulations are not fully implemented and there is substantial financial pressure to maintain the jobs created for processing e-waste. Mexico, Brazil, Ghana Nigeria, India, and China have been selected for a more detailed study of the transboundary movements of e-waste. This includes a systematic review of existing literature, the application of the Driver, Pressure, State, Impact, Response (DPSIR) framework for analysing complex problems associated with social ecological systems, and the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for evaluating the environmental impact of electronic devices from their manufacture through to their final disposal. Japan, Italy, Switzerland, and Norway have been selected for the LCA to show how e-waste is diverted to developing countries, as there is not sufficient data available for the assessment from the selected developing countries. GOOD, BAD and UGLY outcomes have been identified from this study: the GOOD is the creation of jobs and the use of e-waste as a source of raw materials; the BAD is the exacerbation of the already poor environmental conditions in developing countries; the UGLY is the negative impact on the health of workers processing e-waste due to a wide range of toxic components in this waste. There are a number of management options that are available to reduce the impact of the BAD and the UGLY, such as adopting the concept of a circular economy, urban mining, reducing loopholes and improving existing policies and regulations, as well as reducing the disparity in income between the top and bottom of the management hierarchy for e-waste disposal. The overarching message is a request for developed countries to help developing countries in the fight against e-waste, rather than exporting their environmental problems to these poorer regions.
 
Sustainability, 13(9), 5302.

https://doi.org/10.3390/su13095302

). Biochemical Characterization of the Amylase Activity from the New Haloarchaeal Strain Haloarcula sp. HS Isolated in the Odiel Marshlands

Gómez-Villegas, P., Vigara, J., Romero, L., Gotor, C., Raposo, S., Gonçalves, B. & Léon, R.

Amylases are a group of enzymes that degrade starch into simple sugars. These proteins are produced by a wide variety of organisms and are supposed to be one of the most valuable industrial enzymes. However, the extreme conditions required for many industrial operations limit the applicability of most amylases found in nature. In this context, halophilic archaea entail an excellent source of novel proteins that tolerate harsh conditions, as they live in environments with high salt concentration and temperature. In this work, a screening of haloarchaea, isolated from Odiel salterns in the southwest of Spain, was carried out to select a new strain with a high amylase activity. This microorganism was identified as Haloarcula sp. HS and showed amylase activities in both, the cellular and the extracellular extracts. Both amylase activities were poly-extremotolerant, as their optimal yields were achieved at 60 °C and 25% NaCl. Additionally, the study of the protein sequences from Haloarcula sp. HS allowed the identification of three different amylases, which conserved the typical structure of the alpha-amylase family. Finally, the applicability of the extracellular amylase to treat bakery wastes under high salinity conditions was demonstrated.

10(4), 337.

https://doi.org/10.3390/BIOLOGY10040337

Biotic and abiotic factos governing dune response to storm events

The alongshore response of dunes to storm events can be extremely variable and, consequently, their capacity to maintain their services, including the protection of hinterland communities. In this study, the role of biotic and abiotic factors determining the magnitude of dune retreat driven by a severe storm along a 60 km barrier island system was investigated. Data from high-resolution satellite imagery, digital terrain models, and wave propagation models were used in this assessment. The assessed abiotic factors included the backshore volume, dune height, downdrift inlet distance, and incident wave power. The evaluated biotic factor was the vegetation cover, characterized by a vegetation index retrieved from the multispectral imagery. The results revealed large alongshore variability on dune retreat, ranging from negligible impact to ca. 40 m of retreat. All combined factors allowed us to explain up to 70% of the dune retreat variability through a multi-regression analysis. Among all investigated factors, the major contributor controlling the magnitude of dune retreat was the backshore volume (more robust berms reduced the retreat) followed by the wave power (normal and longitudinal components). Moreover, the removal of local salient features in the dune line caused the straightening of the coastline, highly contributing to the development of dune retreat hotspots. The other evaluated factors had a smaller influence on reducing coastal retreat, including the vegetation, whose contribution to dune protection was around one order of magnitude lower than that provided by the backshore volume. The results highlight the importance of regional assessments to understand the causes behind the large alongshore variability of storm impacts at dunes. They also state the relatively low influence of the vegetation from this climatic region to enhance dune resistance to storms.

Garzon, J.L., Costas, S. & Ferreira, Ó.

https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.5300

Nanoplastics impact on marine biota: A review.

Emerging contaminants, such as nanoplastics, are gaining a vast interest within the scientific community. Most of the plastic debris found in the marine environment originates from land-based sources, and once in the marine environment, plastic can be degraded into smaller fragments. Nanoplastics are considered to fall within the definition of other nanoparticles (1–100 nm in size) and may be divided into primary or secondary nanoplastics. Primary nanoplastics are those that enter the environment in their original small size associated with specific applications and consumer products, whilst secondary nanoplastics are a consequence of macro/microplastic degradation. The formation of nanoplastics changes the physical-chemical characteristics of the particle, thus at a nanoscale, it is expected that the strength, conductivity, and reactivity of the nanoparticles will differ substantially from macro/micro-sized particles. To date, the toxicity nanoplastics may pursue on marine biota is still scarce. Herein, a review of the available data on the effects of different polymer types of nanoplastics specific to marine biota is accounted for.

273, 116426.

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2021.116426

Tuda, A., Kark, S., Newton, A. (2020). Polycentricity and adaptive governance of transboundary marine socialecological systems. Ocean and Coastal Management, 105412, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105412

Tuda, A., Kark, S., Newton, A. 

Transboundary marine socio-ecological systems (SESs) are complex and dynamic systems. Enhancing the sustainability of such systems requires adaptive governance supported by polycentric structures. However, adaptive governance of marine SESs across national boundaries can be challenging, as significant differences in institutional arrangements for resource management and adaptive governance capabilities may exist. The limitations of various institutional arrangements and the challenges of adaptive governance across borders are still poorly understood. We offer a comparative study of two marine co-management systems, in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania, which are bound by different legislative environments to elucidate how institutions might limit or enable adaptive governance at the local and transboundary scale. The legislative environment is characterized based on a review of the literature. The structural properties of the co-management systems are examined for evidence of polycentricity using social network analysis. Across the different co-management contexts, we discover similar and distinct institutional opportunities and challenges for adaptive governance. Both co-management regimes foster the participation of diverse actors and multiple interactions. However, both show strong sectoral tendencies and high centrality of government, which can hinder adaptive governance. There are more autonomous decision units in Tanzania's co-management network, hence a more robust social context for polycentricism compared to Kenya. A shift towards enhanced polycentricity to foster adaptive governance of the Kenya-Tanzania transboundary marine SES will require policy frameworks that enhance cross-sectoral integration and create opportunities for multi-stakeholder bridging.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105412

Islam, N., Garcia da Fonseca, T., Vilke, J., Gonçalves, J. M., Pedro, P., Keiter, S., Cunha, S. C., Fernandes, J. O., Bebianno, M. J.. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) adsorbed to polyethylene microplastics: accumulation and ecotoxicological effect

Islam, N., Garcia da Fonseca, T., Vilke, J., Gonçalves, J. M., Pedro, P., Keiter, S., Cunha, S. C., Fernandes, J. O., Bebianno, M. J.

Microplastics are widespread in the marine environment, whereby the uptake of these tiny particles by organisms, can cause adverse biological responses. Plastic debris also act as a vector of many contaminants, herein depending on type, size, shape and chemical properties, possibly intensifying their effects on marine organisms. This study aimed to assess the accumulation and potential toxicity of different sizes of microplastics with and without adsorbed perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in the clam Scrobicularia plana. Clams were exposed to low-density polyethylene microplastics (1 mg L−1) of two different sizes (4–6 and 20–25 μm) virgin and contaminated with PFOS (55.7 ± 5.3 and 46.1 ± 2.9 μg g−1 respectively) over 14 days. Microplastic ingestion, PFOS accumulation and filtration rate were determined along with a multi biomarker approach to assess the biological effects of microplastics ingestion. Biomarkers include oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidases), biotransformation enzymes (glutathione-S-transferases activity), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity), oxidative damage and apoptosis. Microplastics ingestion and PFOS accumulation was microplastic size dependent but not PFOS dependent and filtration rate was reduced at the end of the exposure. Reactive oxygen species in gills and digestive gland were generated as a result of exposure to both types of microplastics, confirming the disturbance of the antioxidant system. Larger virgin microparticles lead to stronger impacts, when compared to smaller ones which was also supported by the Integrated Biomarker Responses index calculated for both tissues. An anti-apoptotic response was detected in digestive glands under exposure to any of the MPs treatments.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105249

Sensory evaluation of seafood freshness using the quality index method: A meta-analysis.

Esteves, E. & Aníbal, J.

The quality index method (QIM) is a leading method of assessing the freshness (and thus quality) of seafood that is based on relatively few sensory attributes considered relevant. These characteristics are scored using a 0 to 3 demerit points' scale, the sum of which is designated the quality index (QI) and quantifies the specimens' lack of freshness. The linear relationship between QI and storage time allows for the estimation of remaining shelf-life. Moreover, QIM is deemed species-specific.

Meta-analysis was carried to attest the species-specificity of QIM schemes or if, otherwise, biological, ecological, procedural and methodological parameters, alone or in combination, justify schemes' categorization. The variation among the QIM schemes was analyzed using random/mixed-effects models of 68 primary studies. The correlation coefficient associated with linear relationship between the QIM scores and storage time was the designated effect.

This study is the first to use of meta-analysis to summarize QIM schemes developed since the inception of the method in the early 1980s. The initial random-effects meta-analysis model indicated that the correlation coefficients associated with QIM averaged 0.982 (95% CI: 0.978–0.986). The considerable remaining heterogeneity (Q = 152.06, p < 0.0008) was further investigated as a function of moderator variables. Several moderator variables, per se or in combination, namely seafood group (bluefish, whitefish, Selachii, cephalopods and crustaceans), storage procedure (ice, water, air, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging) and temperature (°C), family and habitat (marine and freshwater), and maximum number of demerit points in QIM were found to have significant effects (QM, 0.0002 < p < 0.0919) on correlation coefficients derived from QIM schemes. Notwithstanding, at this stage of the analysis none clearly justified the categorization of QIM schemes since substantial residual heterogeneity remained unexplained in almost every case and there were issues with influential studies. Then, in a mixed-effects meta-analysis of a subset of studies for whole specimens stored in ice, seafood groups and maximum number of demerit points were found to be significant moderators (QM, p = 0.0018 and p = 0.0173, respectively). Correlation coefficients were higher in studies developing QIM schemes for cephalopods compared to the other seafood groups and in studies with lower sum of demerit points. The potential issues with publication bias and influence analysis are discussed. We cannot rule out the species-specificity of QIM schemes that have been stated previously and that constitutes a relative advantage compared to other methods of assessment seafood freshness based on sensory analysis, particularly the EU grading scheme.

337, 108934.

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJFOODMICRO.2020.108934

Chronic toxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis?

Gonçalves, J. M., Sousa, V. S., Teixeira, M. R. & Bebianno, M. J.

Nanoplastics (NP) (1–100 nm) are a growing global concern, and their adverse effects in marine organisms are still scarce. This study evaluated the effects of polystyrene nanoplastics (10 μg/L; 50 nm nPS) in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after a 21 – day exposure. The hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential of nPS were analysed, over time, in seawater and ultrapure water. A multibiomarker approach (genotoxicity (the comet assay) was assessed in mussel haemocytes, and the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)), biotransformation enzyme (glutathione – S – transferase (GST)), and oxidative damage (LPO)) was assessed in gills and digestive glands to evaluate the toxicity of nPS towards mussels. In seawater, aggregation of nPS is favoured and consequently the hydrodynamic diameter increases. Genotoxicity was highly noticeable in mussels exposed to nPS, presenting a higher % tail DNA when compared to controls. Antioxidant enzymes are overwhelmed after nPS exposure, leading to oxidative damage in both tissues. Results showed that mussel tissues are incapable of dealing with the effects that this emerging stressor pursues towards the organism. The Integrated Biomarker Response index, used to summarise the biomarkers analysed into one index, shows that nPS toxicity towards mussels are both tissue and time dependent, being that gills are the tissue most compromised.

287, 4, 132356.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132356

Torregroza Espinosa, A.C., Restrepo, J.C., Escobar, J.H., Pierini, J., Newton, A. (2020b). Spatial and temporal variability of temperature, salinity and chlorophyll-a in the Magdalena River mouth, Caribbean Sea. Journal of South American Earth Sciences,

Torregroza Espinosa, A.C., Restrepo, J.C., Escobar, J.H., Pierini, J., Newton, A.

Variations in the physico-chemical characteristics of estuaries, such as surface water salinity and temperature, lead to the establishment of gradients that are closely related with the distribution of nutrients and suspended sediment. This affects light penetration, which in turn influences Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration and primary productivity. We used MODIS imagery to identify spatio-temporal patterns of sea surface salinity, temperature, and Chl-a concentrations from 2003 to 2017, to explore relationships between these variables and oceanographic factors, such as streamflows, winds and currents in the mouth of Colombia's Magdalena River, which discharges to the Caribbean Sea. Sea surface salinity (SSS) in the study zone varied in time and space from estuarine to marine. Mean SSS was 10.8 ± 3.4 at Bocas de Ceniza, and 28.4 ± 0.4 in the Caribbean Sea, with the horizontal salinity gradient providing evidence for the existence of a salinity plume. Mean monthly sea surface temperatures (SST) averaged across all years were 27.6 ± 1.5 °C at Bocas de Ceniza, and 27.6 ± 1.3 °C in the Caribbean Sea. A significant, increasing trend in temperature was observed throughout the years of the study period. Average Chl-a values were 3.3 ± 1.4 mg m−3 at Bocas de Ceniza, and 1.5 ± 1.2 mg m−3 in the Caribbean Sea and the calculated average Trophic State Index (TSI) for Bocas de Ceniza indicated that the estuary trophic state varied between oligo-mesotrophic (30 < TSI≤40) and mesotrophic (40 < TSI≤50). The highest concentrations of Chl-a were found in intermediate salinities in the estuarine zone. Outside the saline plume, there is a considerable decrease in Chl-a concentrations (<0.5 mg m−3). Winds played the most important role in influencing spatio-temporal distribution of chemical and physical variables in the study zone. Our results emphasize the importance of physical processes on biological dynamics in the Magdalena River mouth.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2020.102978

Costas, S., Bon de Sousa, L., Kombiadou, K., Ferreira, Ó., Plomaritis, T.A. (2020). Exploring foredune growth capacity in a coarse sandy beach. Geomorphology, 371, 107435, DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2020.107435

Costas, S., Bon de Sousa, L., Kombiadou, K., Ferreira, Ó., Plomaritis, T.A.

Dunes are key elements of coastal landscapes in almost every latitude. They host high levels of biodiversity and provide important benefits to society; e.g. protection against floods and erosion, or recreation. Coastal dune growth is constrained by intrinsic factors, which are critical when managing dune systems or choosing coastal dune restoration as an alternative green solution for coastal protection. Here, the evolution of a beach-dune system, characterized by a reflective coarse sandy beach and low dunes, is explored to identify the favourable and optimal conditions for dune growth in these settings. Dune growth capacity is evaluated by analysing the topographical changes observed along a coastal dune over two different temporal scales (interannual and event scale) and comparing the observations with theoretical approximations of sediment transport potentials. Observations and predictions over interannual scale document that (1) temporal variability in external conditions (wind regime) and spatial variability of estimated wind fetch length, alone, fail to explain alongshore dune growth patterns and (2) optimal conditions for dune growth occur when storms (strong winds) impact the study area, jointly with low runup levels, at zones of shoreline progradation and absence of direct human influence. Conversely, lowest values of dune accumulation are associated with areas where shoreline retreat was documented. Observations from event timescales suggest that sediment transport potential can be reached over zones with no significant signs of beach erosion, if runup levels remain low and the event duration is shorter than the time scale of sand surface depletion within the upper beach.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2020.107435

Fernandes, E., Fonseca, T.G., Carriço, T., Mestre, N.C., Tavares, A., Bebianno, M. (2020). Cytotoxic responses of the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and comparative sensitivity with human cells lines. Chemospher

Fernandes, E., Fonseca, T.G., Carriço, T., Mestre, N.C., Tavares, A., Bebianno, M

The rise of cancer cases worldwide led to an increase in production and consumption of anticancer drugs, that ultimately end up in the marine environment and are accumulated in aquatic organisms. Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a cytotoxic alkylating agent frequently prescribed in cancer treatments. This study assess ecotoxicological effects of CP on mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, through in vivo and ex vivo approaches and compares the sensitivity of mussel haemocytes with well-established human cell lines (RPE and HeLa). Mussels were exposed in vivo to CP (1000 ng L−1) and several biomarkers analysed in gills and digestive glands namely neurotoxicity (AChE activity), oxidative stress (GPx activity), biotransformation (GST activity), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and apoptosis (caspase activity), whereas genotoxicity was determined in mussels’ haemocytes. Cytotoxicity was also assessed in haemocytes (in vivo and ex vivo) and human cell lines (in vitro) exposed to a range of CP concentrations (50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 ng L−1) over 24 h, via neutral red assay.

In in vivo exposure, detoxification of CP did not efficiently occur in the gills while in digestive glands GPx and GST activities were induced, jointly with a decrease in lipid peroxidation, indicating a potential outcome of the protective antioxidant mechanisms, whereas no apoptosis was noted. Moreover, cytotoxicity and DNA damage were detected in haemocytes. The ex vivo exposure haemocytes to CP caused cytotoxicity (from 100 ng L−1), whereas no effects occurred in human cell lines. This suggests that, at relevant environmental concentrations, CP cause subtle and irreversible impacts on M. galloprovincialis.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127678

 

Martinez, G., Costas, S., Ferreira, Ó. (2020). The role of culture and informal aspects for coastal disaster risk reduction measures: Empirical evidence from northern and southern Europe, Advances in Climate Change Research, 11, 4, 297-309. https://doi.

Martinez, G., Costas, S., Ferreira, Ó.

Recent and historic high-impact events have demonstrated significant flood risks to many coastal areas in Europe and across the globe. Understanding the behavior of humans in relation to risk management poses grand challenges for both natural and social sciences and humanities. The study analyzes the cultural aspects of coastal risk management and illustrates path-dependencies of concrete disaster risk reduction measures in relation to local contexts in European coastal regions in Northern and South Western Europe. It adopts a comparative approach by targeting risk perception and risk management related to coastal floods and erosion, induced by storms and sea level rise, in two contrasting coastal areas: German coastal state Schleswig–Holstein at the Baltic Sea (especially the communities Eckernförde and Timmendorfer Strand) and the Portuguese barrier island system of Ria Formosa (especially the community of Faro Beach). Both regions are very low lying with only a few meters above sea level and exposed to similar hazards such as erosion and floods induced by coastal storms, and while they are both attractive touristic destinations, they are culturally, socio-economically and politically very different. The geographical and the socio-cultural contexts of the case study regions are assessed first using an explorative approach, followed by an analysis of the relevance of cultural aspects for the implementation of disaster risk reduction measures. The study addresses both first responders (city authorities, citizens) and scholars. It is found that the choice of risk reduction measures hinges on the values underlying people's perspectives about the desired outcomes of specific measures and that the role of identity and meaning making are still undervalued in decision making processes. It concludes that subjective capacities formed by cultural identities, knowledge, trust coupled with a variety of factors of socio-economic and political texture are important to understand local decision making processes. The authors found that lively ‘culture of risk memory’, ‘trust in scientific information and community’ as well as decision making of coastal authorities coupled with inclusiveness and participation of communities in formulating and implementing disaster risk reduction measures are prerequisites for successful collaboration and in turn execution of disaster risk reduction measures.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accre.2020.11.001

Howell, K.L., Hilário, A., Allcock, A.L., Bailey, D., Baker, M., Le Bris, N., Clark, M.R., Colaço, A., Copley, J., Cordes, E., Danovaro, R., Dissanayake, A., Escobar, E., Esquete, P., Gallagher, A., Gates, A., Gaudron, S.M., German, C.R., Gjerde, K., Hi

Howell, K.L., Hilário, A., Allcock, A.L., Bailey, D., Baker, M., Le Bris, N., Clark, M.R., Colaço, A., Copley, J., Cordes, E.,
Danovaro, R., Dissanayake, A., Escobar, E., Esquete, P., Gallagher, A., Gates, A., Gaudron, S.M., German, C.R., Gjerde,
K., Higgs, N.D., Levin, L.A., Manea, E., McClain, C., Menot, L., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Milligan, R., Muthumbi, A.W.N,
Narayanaswamy, B., Ramalho, S.P., Ramirez-Llodra, E., Robson, L., Rogers, A.D., Sellanes, J., Sigwart, J., Sink, K., Snelgrove,
P.V.R., Stefanoudis, P., Sumida, P.Y., Taylor, M., Thurber, A.R., Vieira, R., Watanabe, H.K., Woodall, L., Xavier, J.R.

The ocean plays a crucial role in the functioning of the Earth System and in the provision of vital goods and services. The United Nations (UN) declared 2021–2030 as the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. The Roadmap for the Ocean Decade aims to achieve six critical societal outcomes (SOs) by 2030, through the pursuit of four objectives (Os). It specifically recognizes the scarcity of biological data for deep-sea biomes, and challenges the global scientific community to conduct research to advance understanding of deep-sea ecosystems to inform sustainable management. In this paper, we map four key scientific questions identified by the academic community to the Ocean Decade SOs: (i) What is the diversity of life in the deep ocean? (ii) How are populations and habitats connected? (iii) What is the role of living organisms in ecosystem function and service provision? and (iv) How do species, communities, and ecosystems respond to disturbance? We then consider the design of a global-scale program to address these questions by reviewing key drivers of ecological pattern and process. We recommend using the following criteria to stratify a global survey design: biogeographic region, depth, horizontal distance, substrate type, high and low climate hazard, fished/unfished, near/far from sources of pollution, licensed/protected from industry activities. We consider both spatial and temporal surveys, and emphasize new biological data collection that prioritizes southern and polar latitudes, deeper (> 2000 m) depths, and midwater environments. We provide guidance on observational, experimental, and monitoring needs for different benthic and pelagic ecosystems. We then review recent efforts to standardize biological data and specimen collection and archiving, making “sampling design to knowledge application” recommendations in the context of a new global program. We also review and comment on needs, and recommend actions, to develop capacity in deep-sea research; and the role of inclusivity - from accessing indigenous and local knowledge to the sharing of technologies - as part of such a global program. We discuss the concept of a new global deep-sea biological research program ‘Challenger 150,’ highlighting what it could deliver for the Ocean Decade and UN Sustainable Development Goal 14.

https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.584861

Howell, K.L., Hilário, A., Allcock, A.L., Bailey, D., Baker, M., Le Bris, N., Clark, M.R., Colaço, A., Copley, J., Cordes, E., Danovaro, R., Dissanayake, A., Escobar, E., Esquete, P., Gallagher, A., Gates, A., Gaudron, S.M., German, C.R., Gjerde, K., Hi

Howell, K.L., Hilário, A., Allcock, A.L., Bailey, D., Baker, M., Le Bris, N., Clark, M.R., Colaço, A., Copley, J., Cordes, E.,
Danovaro, R., Dissanayake, A., Escobar, E., Esquete, P., Gallagher, A., Gates, A., Gaudron, S.M., German, C.R., Gjerde,
K., Higgs, N.D., Levin, L.A., Manea, E., McClain, C., Menot, L., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Milligan, R., Muthumbi, A.W.N,
Narayanaswamy, B., Ramalho, S.P., Ramirez-Llodra, E., Robson, L., Rogers, A.D., Sellanes, J., Sigwart, J., Sink, K., Snelgrove,
P.V.R., Stefanoudis, P., Sumida, P.Y., Taylor, M., Thurber, A.R., Vieira, R., Watanabe, H.K., Woodall, L., Xavier, J.R.

The United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development presents an exceptional opportunity to effect positive change in ocean use. We outline what is required of the deep-sea research community to achieve these ambitious objectives.

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-01352-5

A Decade to study deep-sea life. Nature Ecology and Evolution

Howell, K.L., Hilário, A., Allcock, A.L., Bailey, D., Baker, M., Le Bris, N., Clark, M.R., Colaço, A., Copley, J., Cordes, E., Danovaro, R., Dissanayake, A., Escobar, E., Esquete, P., Gallagher, A., Gates, A., Gaudron, S.M., German, C.R., Gjerde, K., Higgs, N.D., Levin, L.A., Manea, E., McClain, C., Menot, L., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Milligan, R., Muthumbi, A.W.N, Narayanaswamy, B., Ramalho, S.P., Ramirez-Llodra, E., Robson, L., Rogers, A.D., Sellanes, J., Sigwart, J., Sink, K., Snelgrove, P.V.R., Stefanoudis, P., Sumida, P.Y., Taylor, M., Thurber, A.R., Vieira, R., Watanabe, H.K., Woodall, L., Xavier, J.R.

The health of the global ocean, on which society depends, is in decline. The importance of sustainable use to ocean health has long been recognized, yet the United Nations (UN) First World Ocean Assessment from 2017 highlighted increasing ocean pressures from accelerated expansion of human activities, including climate change. These pressures affect all ocean regions, from the coast to the deep sea. In response to this concern, and to align with several international policy commitments, the UN General Assembly proclaimed 2021–2030 the Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development.

5, 265–267

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-01352-5

Smith, C.R., Tunnicliffe, V., Colaço, A. Drazen, J.C. Gollner, S., Levin, L.A., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Molodtsova, T., Morato, T. Sweetman, A.K., Washburn, T. Amon, D.J. (2020b). Environmental protection requires accurate application of scientific

Smith, C.R., Tunnicliffe, V., Colaço, A. Drazen, J.C. Gollner, S., Levin, L.A., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Molodtsova, T., Morato, T. Sweetman, A.K., Washburn, T. Amon, D.J.

We thank Dr Verlaan [ 1. ] for offering a legal opinion on the United Nations Convention for the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and its protections for the marine environment, inspired by reading our paper [ 2. ]. We agree that scientists and lawyers should work together to formulate deep-sea mining regulations; to this end, we have jointly authored 19 publications with lawyers on topics related to human impacts in the deep sea. We also agree that regulatory decisions concerning seabed mining must be informed both by accurate interpretations of the law and by accurate application of the best available scientific evidence.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2020.10.021

Van Dover, C., Colaco, A., Collins, P. Croot, P., Metaxas, A., Murton, B., Swaddling, A., Boschen-Rose, R., Carlsson, J., Cuyvers, L., Fukushima, T., Gartman, A., Kennedy, R. Kriete, C., Mestre, N.C., Molodtsova, T., Myhrvold, A., Pelleter, E., Popoola,

Van Dover, C., Colaco, A., Collins, P. Croot, P., Metaxas, A., Murton, B., Swaddling, A., Boschen-Rose, R., Carlsson, J., Cuyvers, L., Fukushima, T., Gartman, A., Kennedy, R. Kriete, C., Mestre, N.C., Molodtsova, T., Myhrvold, A., Pelleter, E., Popoola, S., Qian, P.-Y., Sarrazin, J., Sharma, R., Suh, Y.J., Sylvan, J., Tao, C., Tomczak, M., Vermilye, J.

Polymetallic sulfide (PMS) deposits produced at hydrothermal vents in the deep sea are of potential interest to miners. Hydrothermally active sulfide ecosystems are valued for the extraordinary chemosynthetic communities that they support. Many countries, including Canada, Portugal, and the United States, protect vent ecosystems in their Exclusive Economic Zones. When hydrothermal activity ceases temporarily (dormancy) or permanently (extinction), the habitat and associated ecosystem change dramatically. Until recently, so-called “inactive sulfide” habitats, either dormant or extinct, received little attention from biologists. However, the need for environmental management of deep-sea mining places new imperatives for building scientific understanding of the structure and function of inactive PMS deposits. This paper calls for actions of the scientific community and the emergent seabed mining industry to i) undertake fundamental ecological descriptions and study of ecosystem functions and services associated with hydrothermally inactive PMS deposits, ii) evaluate potential environmental risks to ecosystems of inactive PMS deposits through research, and iii) identify environmental management needs that may enable mining of inactive PMS deposits. Mining of some extinct PMS deposits may have reduced environmental risk compared to other seabed mining activities, but this must be validated through scientific research on a case-by-case basis.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2020.104183

Kombiadou, K., Matias, A., Costas, S., Rita Carrasco, A., Plomaritis, T. A., Ferreira, Ó. (2020b). Barrier island resilience assessment: Applying the ecological principles to geomorphological data. CATENA, 194, 104755, https://doi. org/10.1016/j.catena.2

Kombiadou, K., Matias, A., Costas, S., Rita Carrasco, A., Plomaritis, T. A., Ferreira, Ó.

Applying the ecological resilience principles to barrier island geomorphological evolution requires approaches that perceive and interpret resilience far from predefined barrier characteristics and static views. Accepting that barrier islands, like all natural systems, are dynamic and adaptively changing in response to external disturbances is fundamental to the formulated approach. To this aim, geomorphological units and dimensions were used to describe barrier island stability landscape as an actively shifting ‘topography’, reshaping in response to exogenous events and in relation to intrinsic properties. The structure of the subaerial barrier was characterised using the environmental units of Beach, Dune and Marsh (or BDM), where different combinations of BDM structure define distinct barrier stable states, under a simplified framework that is applicable over a wide range of barrier structures. The methodology is based on reconstructing resilience trajectories of barrier islands through identifying the distinct BDM states and related shifts (thresholds crossed) and assessing resilience dimensions (latitude, resistance and precariousness defined as barrier width and height and proximity to mainland, respectively) that, jointly, define the shape of the stability domain. The approach was applied to the Ria Formosa barrier island system (S. Portugal), using multi-decadal geomorphological data and gradually decreasing spatial discretisation, passing from individual barrier transects to sectors and to entire barriers. The joint evolution of two inland-migrating barriers (Cabanas Island and Cacela Peninsula) was used as an exemplar of adaptive capacity in barrier geomorphic change and, therefore, of resilient response to external pressures. Resilience pathways showed that the Ria Formosa barriers have been resilient over the studied timeframe, with a tendency for maintaining or increasing BDM structural complexity. In general, the stability domain tends to shift from low latitude and high resistance forms (narrow-deep basins of attraction) in the west part of the barrier chain, to higher latitudes and lower resistance ones (wide-shallow basins) towards the east. Precariousness peaks near the edges of the system (low lagoon width) and minimises towards the central part (most detached barriers). Scaling issues regarding smoothing of longshore variability and potential consequences on masking thresholds and critical dimensions are highlighted and discussed, along with the key role of the meaning of specified resilience (of what?) in the assessment. The methodology is a novel approach, easily transferable to different systems and spatiotemporal scales of analysis, representing a step forward in interpreting and assessing barrier island resilience.

https://doi. org/10.1016/j.catena.2020.104755

Guerra, L., Veiga-Pires, C., González-Regalado, M. L., Abad, M., Toscano, A., Muñoz, J. M., Ruiz, F., Rodríguez Vidal, J., Cáceres, L. M., Izquierdo, T., Carretero, M. I., Pozo, M., Monge, G., Tosquella, J., Prudencio, M. I., Dias, M. I., Marques, R., G

Guerra, L., Veiga-Pires, C., González-Regalado, M. L., Abad, M., Toscano, A., Muñoz, J. M., Ruiz, F., Rodríguez Vidal,
J., Cáceres, L. M., Izquierdo, T., Carretero, M. I., Pozo, M., Monge, G., Tosquella, J., Prudencio, M. I., Dias, M. I., Marques,
R., Gómez, P., Romero, V.

This paper studies the Late Holocene benthic foraminifera from a continuous core extracted in the Doñana National Park (SW Spain). In this core, the foraminiferal assemblages confirm the Late Holocene lagoon (historically so-called Lacus Ligustinus) during the Roman period, about 2000 years ago. The more open, deepest areas of this lagoon were dominated by Ammonia tepida and Elphidium spp., while Haynesina germanica was the most representative species of the shallow, more restricted zones. The vertical variations of these assemblages, together with associated sedimentological and macrofaunal changes, allow recognizing three high-energy events (HEE) between 500 BCE and 500 CE, which also left an extensive sedimentary record in nearby coastal areas: two tsunamis (HEE-1 and HEE-3) and a storminess period (HEE-2).

https://doi.org/10.5710/AMGH.08.05.2020.3336

Vousdoukas, M. I., Ranasinghe, R., Mentaschi, L., Plomaritis, T. A., Athanasiou, P., Luijendijk, A., Feyen, L. (2020). Sandy coastlines under threat of erosion. Nature Climate Change. Nature Research, 10, pp. 260–263. https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41558-020-

Vousdoukas, M. I., Ranasinghe, R., Mentaschi, L., Plomaritis, T. A., Athanasiou, P., Luijendijk, A., Feyen, L.

Sandy beaches occupy more than one-third of the global coastline1 and have high socioeconomic value related to recreation, tourism and ecosystem services2. Beaches are the interface between land and ocean, providing coastal protection from marine storms and cyclones3. However the presence of sandy beaches cannot be taken for granted, as they are under constant change, driven by meteorological4,5, geological6 and anthropogenic factors1,7. A substantial proportion of the world’s sandy coastline is already eroding1,7, a situation that could be exacerbated by climate change8,9. Here, we show that ambient trends in shoreline dynamics, combined with coastal recession driven by sea level rise, could result in the near extinction of almost half of the world’s sandy beaches by the end of the century. Moderate GHG emission mitigation could prevent 40% of shoreline retreat. Projected shoreline dynamics are dominated by sea level rise for the majority of sandy beaches, but in certain regions the erosive trend is counteracted by accretive ambient shoreline changes; for example, in the Amazon, East and Southeast Asia and the north tropical Pacific. A substantial proportion of the threatened sandy shorelines are in densely populated areas, underlining the need for the design and implementation of effective adaptive measures.

https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41558-020-0697-0

O CIMA é financiado pela Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) através da referência UIDP/00350/2020, com sede no Campus Universitário de Gambelas, Edifício 7,  8005-139 FARO PORTUGAL. Tel: 351 289 244 434, 351 289 800 100; E-mail: cima@ualg.pt (+ info)
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O CIMA é financiado pela Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) através da referência UIDP/00350/2020, com sede no Campus Universitário de Gambelas, Edifício 7,  8005-139 FARO PORTUGAL. Tel: 351 289 244 434, 351 289 800 100; E-mail: cima@ualg.pt
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