Application of scientific criteria for identifying hydrothermal ecosystems in need of protection

S.Gollner, A.Colaço, A.Gebruk, P.N.Halpin, N.Higgs, E.Menini, N.C.Mestre, P.-Y.Qian, J.Sarrazin, K.Szafranski, C.L.Van Dover

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are globally rare (abundant in numbers, but extremely small in area) and are rich in extraordinary life based on chemosynthesis rather than photosynthesis. Vent fields are also sources of polymetallic sulfides rich in copper and other metals. Mineral resources of the international seabed beyond national jurisdictions (referred to as the “Area”) are administered by the International Seabed Authority (ISA), which has the mandate to organize and control mineral resource-related activities and to ensure effective protection of the marine environment from harmful effects which may arise from such activities. To date, the ISA has approved 3 contracts for mineral exploration on the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (nMAR) and is developing a Regional Environmental Management Plan (REMPs) for polymetallic sulfide resources in the Area of northern MAR, including the application of area-based management tools to address the potential impacts of mining activities. Several intergovernmental organizations have developed suites of criteria to identify vulnerable, sensitive, and ecologically or biologically significant ecosystems in need of protection. In this case study, we combine criteria developed by FAO for VMEs (Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems), by CBD for EBSAs (Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas), and by IMO for PSSAs (Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas) to assess whether the 11 confirmed vent fields on the nMAR may meet these criteria. Our assessment indicates that all vent fields meet multiple criteria for vulnerability, sensitivity, and ecological or biological significance, and 10 of 11 vent fields meet all criteria for ecosystems in need of protection.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2021.104641

Past and future marsh adaptation: Lessons learned from the Ria Formosa lagoon

A.R.Carrasco, K.Kombiadou, M.Amado, A.Matias

It is rational to assume that salt marshes in regions where sediment loads are high should remain stable or prograde when facing a range of sea-level scenarios, whereas those in sediment-poor systems may erode or drown. Despite extensive theoretical and laboratory studies, additional marsh ‘persistence’ indicators under human pressures and accelerated sea-level rise rates are still needed. This study investigates the recent lateral and volumetric changes occurring in the lagoon marshes of the Ria Formosa lagoon (south Portugal), under human pressures and sea-level rise. Our analysis assesses the past (1947–2014) geomorphological evolution of marshes based on aerial imagery analysis and estimates its potential future adjustment to sea-level rise (~100 years) based on SLAMM (landscape-based model) simulated land cover changes. We highlight the influence of both stressors on marsh ecosystems and examine how their interactions can contribute to understanding sea-level rise impacts and ecological resilience of lagoon marshes. Salt marshes in the Ria Formosa have slowly expanded over the last 70 years (~0.2 mm/yr), with local erosion in front of tidal inlets and along the main navigable channels, associated with inlet migration and dredging activities. Past evolution shows that the ecosystem was able to maintain its functions and cope with sea-level rise. However, future marsh trajectories under a high sea-level rise rate suggest unbalanced vertical marsh accretion and progressive migration of the tidal flat (and water bodies) towards the salt marsh area. The model results show evidence of non-linearity in marsh response to high sea-level rise rates, which could indicate the presence of a system tipping-point and potential positive (disturbance-reinforcing) feedbacks within the system, with significant implications to marsh resilience.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148082

New data on the palynology of the Triassic–Jurassic boundary of the Silves Group, Lusitanian Basin, Portugal

Margarida Vilas-Boas, Zélia Pereira, Simonetta Cirilli, Luís Vítor Duarte, Paulo Fernandes

New evidence is presented on the Triassic–Jurassic boundary in the northern Lusitanian Basin, Portugal, based on miospore assemblages from a composite Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic succession of the Silves Group. The latter comprises, from base to top, the Conraria, Penela, Castelo Viegas and the Pereiros formations. Three informal palynological zones have been documented and compared with coeval palynozones from West and South Europe providing new biostratigraphic data to detail the age of the lower and upper formations of the Silves Group and to review previous age attribution.

A Norian, possibly earliest Rhaetian age, is documented for the Conraria Formation on the basis of a palynological assemblage referable to the Classopollis meyerianus–Granuloperculatipollis rudis (CG) zone. The Penela and Castelo Viegas formations did not allow a palynostratigraphic revision, due to the not promising lithology for palynological studies. The Pereiros Formation is dated on the basis of microflora assemblages referable, from bottom to top, the Ischyosporites variegatus–Kraeuselisporites reissingeri (IK) zone of late Rhaetian–earliest Hettangian age and Pinuspollenites minimus (Pm) zone of Hettangian age. The discontinuity between the underlying Castelo Viegas Formation and the overlying Pereiros Formation did not allow to define the lower boundary of the IK palynozone. The Triassic–Jurassic boundary lies in the lower part of Pereiros Formation within the IK zone. The microflora assemblages from the Lusitanian Basin show close affinity to those of eastern N America and western Tethys areas.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2021.104426

 

Characterization of a fatty acid-binding protein from the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas): pharmaceutical and toxicological implications

Juliana F. Tisca, Karin dos Santos, Tomás B. Pessati, Flávia L. Zacchi, Fabíola S. Soares, Vanessa A. Oliveira, Maria J.A.F. Bebianno, Afonso C.D. Bainy & Guilherme Razzera

Pharmaceuticals and their metabolites constitute a class of xenobiotics commonly found in aquatic environments which may cause toxic effects in aquatic organisms. Several different lipophilic molecules, including some pharmaceuticals, can bind to fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), a group of evolutionarily related cytoplasmic proteins that belong to the intracellular lipid-binding protein (iLBP) family. An oyster FABP genome-wide investigation was not available until a recent study on gene organization, protein structure, and phylogeny of Crassostrea gigas iLBPs. Higher transcript levels of the C. gigas FABP2 gene were found after exposure to sewage and pharmaceuticals. Because of its relevance as a potential biomarker of aquatic contamination, in this study, recombinant FABP2 from C. gigas (CgFABP2) was successfully cloned, expressed, and purified, and in vitro and in silico assays were performed using lipids and pharmaceuticals. This is the first characterization of a protein from the iLBP family in C. gigas. Homology modeling and molecular docking were used to evaluate the binding affinities of natural ligands (palmitic, oleic, and arachidonic acids) and pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, sodium diclofenac, and acetaminophen). Among the tested fatty acids, CgFABP2 showed preference for palmitic acid. The selected pharmaceuticals presented a biphasic-binding mode, suggesting a different binding affinity with a preference for diclofenac. Therefore, the approach using circular dichroism and in silico data might be useful for ligand-binding screening in an invertebrate model organism.

 

https://doi.org/10.1007/S11356-021-12645-Y

Correction to: Characterization of a fatty acid-binding protein from the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas): pharmaceutical and toxicological implications

Juliana F. Tisca, Karin dos Santos, Tomás B. Pessati, Flávia L. Zacchi, Fabíola S. Soares, Vanessa A. Oliveira, Maria J. A. F. Bebianno, Afonso C. D. Bainy & Guilherme Razzera

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12645-y

An assessment of the psychometric properties of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale and its prediction in safety performance in a Portuguese adult sample

Cátia Sousa, Gabriela Gonçalves, António Sousa & Ezequiel Pinto

This study aims to present the psychometric properties of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale in a Portuguese sample. Three studies were performed: the first study provides psychometric evidence pertaining to its reliability and factor structure, an analysis of the measurement invariance of the BSSS across gender and age, and an examination of the differences scores on the scale regarding gender, age and marital status (n = 526); the second study consists of an assessment of convergent, discriminant and postdictive validity (n = 240); and the third study includes a test-retest of the BSSS (n = 72). A four-factor model yielded the best fit to the data with good reliability and validity. The scale showed non-invariance between genders and between ages, which makes it less generalizable and susceptible to different populations. Convergent validity with the variables risk taking, need for arousal and extraversion, and discriminant validity between neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness, were demonstrated. The scale presents good temporal stability and represent an important tool for psychological assessment of personality and behavior, and as a predictor of safety performance.

https://doi.org/10.1007/S12144-018-9966-8

Environmental Protection Requires Accurate Application of Scientific Evidence

Craig R.Smith, Verena Tunnicliffe, Ana Colaço, Jeffrey C.Drazen, Sabine Gollner, Lisa A.Levin, Nelia C.Mestre, Anna Metaxas, Tina N.Molodtsova, Telmo Morato, Andrew K.Sweetman, Travis Washburn, Diva J.Amon

We thank Dr Verlaan [1] for offering a legal opinion on the United Nations Convention for the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and its protections for the marine environment, inspired by reading our paper [2]. We agree that scientists and lawyers should work together to formulate deep-sea mining regulations; to this end, we have jointly authored 19 publications with lawyers on topics related to human impacts in the deep sea. We also agree that regulatory decisions concerning seabed mining must be informed both by accurate interpretations of the law and by accurate application of the best available scientific evidence.

We disagree that our paper [2] is a ‘well-intentioned but inaccurate legal analysis’ [1], because it is not a legal analysis. It is a scientific paper highlighting misconceptions about the potential environmental impacts of seabed mining that result when the best available scientific evidence is overlooked.

We feel obligated to point out four areas of scientific inaccuracy and misrepresentation in the critique of our paper [1]. First, Verlaan [1] speculates that we are suggesting ‘that a ‘miniscule [sic] effect’ argument can legally be made to ignore or permit harmful effects.’ Rather than a legal argument, we are warning against misrepresenting threats from seabed mining to deep-sea ecosystems by comparing the spatial scales of mining disturbance with the area of entire ocean basins [3] (https://ran-s3.s3.amazonaws.com/isa.org.jm/s3fs-public/documents/EN/SG-Stats/dsm-hamburg.pdf). Such arguments appear to be based on the misconception that the deep seafloor is largely a single, homogeneous habitat. Numerous peer-reviewed papers provide scientific evidence that deep seafloor habitats and their characteristic biotas can be heterogeneous on scales ≥10 kilometers (e.g., [2,4,5]). Thus, seabed mining disturbance occurring over scales much smaller than ocean basins may threaten unique habitats and biodiversity [6,7]. We note that mining for polymetallic nodules at the scales currently under consideration in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) could alter habitat structure and biodiversity over >500 000 km2 of seafloor (i.e., an area roughly the size of France) and threaten substantial proportions of unique nodule habitat [2].

Second, Verlaan [1] questions our statement that areas targeted for seabed mining include ‘wilderness.’ Hydrothermal vents, many seamounts, and abyssal areas beyond Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) remain among the most intact ecosystems on the planet [8,9] and fit the definition of ‘wilderness’ in scientific usage (i.e., ‘areas devoid of intense human impacts’) [10].

Third, the statement, “‘Conservation” is required for natural resources, not ecosystems…’ [1], is at odds with the science of conservation biology, in which a major conservation objective is the protection of entire ecosystems [11]. Conservation biology has led to the principles of ‘ecosystem-based management’ that underpin the ISA’s Regional Environmental Management Plan for the CCZ, which aims to ‘Maintain regional biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecosystem function…’ (ISBA/17/LTC/7, https://isa.org.jm/files/files/documents/isba-17ltc-7_0.pdf). Thus, conservation of marine ecosystems is a fundamental component of scientifically based marine spatial planning and environmental management [12].

Fourth, it is also scientifically inaccurate to suggest that ‘the less “pristine” the marine environment, the greater the risk of harmful effects from activities; hence the more its protection is required.’ Current views in conservation biology call for prioritizing protection of wilderness areas because they often contain ‘high genetic diversity, unique functional traits, and endemic species; maintain high levels of ecological and evolutionary connectivity; and may be well placed to resist and recover from the impacts of climate change’ [10]. The need to protect ‘naturalness’ has been recognized in the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity Conference of the Parties Decision IX/20 Annex I with the goal ‘to protect areas with near natural structure, processes and functions,’ ‘to maintain these areas as reference sites,’ and ‘to safeguard and enhance ecosystem resilience’ (https://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=11663).

In closing, we agree that environmentally responsible regulation of human activities in the ocean requires both sound legal analyses and scientific evidence [1]. However, the design of scientific research and the collection and interpretation of scientific data are the responsibility of scientists, who must ensure that the best scientific evidence is available and used. A clear understanding of the environmental consequences of seabed mining based on scientific evidence is key to most efficiently managing human activities in the ocean to maintain biodiversity, ecosystem structure, and ecosystem services.

Finally, we applaud Verlaan [1] for stressing the uncertainties regarding the multiple adverse impacts of human activities on the ocean: ‘The marine environment is acidifying, warming, deoxygenating, becoming noisier, brighter, overfished, and more polluted. It is legally and scientifically unclear how to disentangle and regulate these and other adverse effects of human activities from those specifically related to sea-bed mining’ [1]. This argument highlights the need for a precautionary approach in proceeding with deep seabed mining due to our poor understanding of deep-sea ecosystems and mining impacts and the potential for interactions with other anthropogenic threats to the marine environment [2].

 

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2020.10.021

Environmental triggers of faunal changes revealed by benthic foraminiferal monitoring

Joachim Schönfeld and Isabel Mendes

Benthic foraminifera are deemed sensitive indicators of environmental conditions. Triggers and magnitudes of faunal response to environmental changes are yet poorly constrained. Benthic foraminiferal faunas were monitored annually at Ria Formosa (Algarve, Portugal) coastal lagoon since 2013. Distinct environmental changes were recognised during the monitoring period. The relocation of a tidal inlet in winter 2015 effected faster flushing, higher tidal levels, and stronger currents in the Esteiro do Ancão tidal channel. The epibenthic foraminiferal species Asterigerinata mamilla increased in abundance and the population densities of the whole fauna were double as high as before inlet relocation. Enhanced sediment redeposition was recorded and extensive polychaete colonies successively replaced firmground patches with oysters. The standing stock of the foraminiferal fauna declined in the next year due to food impoverishment, while the high hydraulic energy levels and high percentages of Asterigerinata mamilla maintained. Benthic foraminifera responded much faster to environmental perturbations than macroorganisms identifying them as powerful proxies in environmental studies.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2021.107313

 

Marine Litter on the Coast of the Algarve: Main Sources and Distribution Using a Modeling Approach

Eloah Rosas, Flávio Martins and João Janeiro

The accumulation of floating marine litter poses a serious threat to the global environment and the economy all over the world, particularly of coastal municipalities that rely on tourism and recreational activities. Data of marine litter is thus crucial, but is usually limited, and can be complemented with modelling results. In this study, the operational modelling system of Algarve (SOMA) was combined with a Lagrangian particle-tracking model and blended with scarce litter monitoring data, to provide first insights into the distribution and accumulation of floating marine litter on the Algarve coast. Different meteo-oceanographic conditions, sources regions and wind drift behaviors were considered. Field data and model results show a considerable concentration of marine litter along the beaches and coastal regions. The model also suggests that oceanographic conditions and wind drift have a great influence on the transport and accumulation rate of the floating marine litter on the coast, with the highest rates of accumulation during the winter and the counter current period, concentrated mostly on the south-western coast of the Algarve.

https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040412

Effects of climate change and anthropogenic pressures in the water quality of a coastal lagoon (Ria Formosa, Portugal)

Marta Rodrigues, Alexandra Rosa, Alexandra Cravo, José Jacob, André B.Fortunato

Understanding how climatic and anthropogenic drivers will influence coastal lagoons is fundamental to guarantee their preservation and sustainability. The Ria Formosa (coastal lagoon, South coast of Portugal) is a very important ecosystem that supports diverse economic activities in the region. The 3D coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model SCHISM was validated and used to assess the influence of climate change and anthropogenic pressures on the water quality of the Ria Formosa. Five scenarios were simulated: reference scenario (S0), mean sea level rise (SLR) of 0.5 m (S1), increase of the air temperature of 1.68 °C (S2), increase of the outflow from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) by 50% (S3) and a combined scenario (S4). Results suggest that SLR of 0.5 m promotes an increase of 0.5–3 in the salinity near the area of influence of the WWTP. SLR decreases the inorganic nutrient concentrations in these areas by about 40–60%, due to an increase of the dilution. In contrast, the increase of the outflow from the WWTP by 50% increases the nutrients concentrations by about 20–40%. The increase of the air temperature alone by 1.68 °C increases the water temperature by 0–1 °C. The combined scenario suggests antagonist effects in the nutrient concentrations. Overall, the trophic index (TRIX) of the lagoon calculated for the scenarios exhibits only minor differences relative to the reference scenario, except in some areas near the WWTP discharges. In these areas, TRIX tends to increase with the increase of the outflow from the WWTP in scenario S3. These results provide further insight into the response of coastal lagoons, and the Ria Formosa in particular, to future changes and contribute to support their management.

 

https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2021.146311

Preliminary late Miocene palynomorph assemblages from the Quifangondo and Luanda formations, Onshore Kwanza Basin, Angola

C.F.Rodrigues, Z.Pereira, M.Mendes, P.C.Nsungani, P.Fernandes, G.Lopes, L.V.Duarte, W.Aboelkomsan, E.Taylor, M.Tyrrell, M.F.Fernando, V.Machado

A Miocene succession exposed at the Cabo Ledo and Miradouro da Lua sections in the Onshore Kwanza Basin, Angola, was examined for palynology. Palynomorphs of preliminary late Miocene age identified are presented herein. The upper part of the Quifangondo Formation is dated as middle Tortonian in age based on the co-occurrence of the pollen grain Fenestrites spinosus and the dinoflagellate species Selenopemphix armageddonensis. The palynomorph signature indicates a middle neritic marine environment dominated by dinoflagellate cyst taxa.

A late Miocene (late Tortonian to Messinian) age is also documented for the first time at the base of the Luanda Formation based on the co-occurrence of the pollen taxa Echitricolporites spinosus, Fenestrites spinosus, Fenestrites longispinosus, Monoporopollenites annulatus, and Retistephanocolpites gracilis. The palynomorph signature of this unit reflects an inner neritic marine (coastal/lagoon transitional) environment dominated by terrestrial palynomorphs and very rare dinoflagellate cyst taxa.

The present research contributes data for improving the stratigraphical framework of the Quifangondo and Luanda formations, both of which are recognized as the main potential source rocks and reservoirs of the Post-Salt Paleogene/Neogene Petroleum System of the Kwanza Basin. This significant contribution provides important biostratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental data for defining the vital temporal horizons of these settings in a basin where petroleum exploration is of interest.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2021.104141

Implementation and validation of an approach for the estimation of the magnitude of historical earthquakes in Azores Islands

Eduardo Charters Morais, Tiago Miguel Ferreira, João M.C.Estêvão, Carlos Sousa Oliveira

In many regions of the globe, the seismic data associated with higher magnitude seismic events usable in the characterization of the seismic hazard is scarce. Therefore, seismologists have been estimating the magnitude and probable epicentral location of historical earthquakes using the historical records and intensity scales to map the observed damage. Another method, employed by earthquake engineers, uses fragility functions, a ground motion model and the Bayes’ theorem to estimate the probable magnitude of historical seismic events. Nevertheless, this method requires assembling an approach consistent with the local seismicity and building stock of the period of reference. This paper implements and validates an approach for the estimation of the magnitude of historical seismic events in Azores Islands, Portugal, that uses fragility functions. In order to carry out this study, data from the damage surveys, a vulnerability distribution and approximate epicentral positions of the 1998 Faial earthquake Mw = 6.0–6.2, as well as a specific attenuation model, are utilized in a calibration phase. The vulnerability index methodology is employed to derive fragility functions from a detailed vulnerability assessment. Afterwards, the approach is validated using analogous data corresponding to the 1980 Terceira earthquake Mw = 6.8–7.2. The different assumptions and results are discussed and compared. The results show that this approach can model expected magnitude values with accuracy: Mw = 6.01–5.76 for the 1998 Faial and Mw = 6.90–6.55 for the 1980 Terceira earthquakes. Additionally, the real PGAs may have been in several locations lower than those predicted by the selected ground motion equation.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.102000

Effects of sea level rise on salinity and tidal flooding patterns in the Guadiana Estuary

Lara Mills, João Janeiro, Flávio Martins

Sea level rise is a worldwide concern as a high percentage of the population is located in coastal areas. The focus of this study is the impact of sea level rise in the Guadiana Estuary, an estuary in the Iberian Peninsula formed at the interface of the Guadiana River and the Gulf of Cadiz. Estuaries will be impacted by sea level rise as these transitional environments host highly diverse and complex marine ecosystems. The major consequences of sea level rise are the intrusion of salt from the sea into fresh water and an increase in flooding area. As the physical, chemical, and biological components of estuaries are sensitive to changes in salinity, the purpose of this study is to further evaluate salt intrusion in the Guadiana Estuary caused by sea level rise. Hydrodynamics of the Guadiana Estuary were simulated in a two-dimensional numerical model with the MOHID water modeling system. A previously developed hydrodynamic model was implemented to further examine changes in salinity distribution in the estuary in response to sea level rise. Varying tidal amplitudes, freshwater discharge from the Guadiana River and bathymetries of the estuary were incorporated in the model to fully evaluate the impacts of sea level rise on salinity distribution and flooding areas of the estuary. Results show an overall increase in salinity and land inundation in the estuary in response to sea level rise.

 

https://doi.org/10.2166/wcc.2021.202

Science communication for social inclusion: exploring science & art approaches

Ana Matias, Andreia Dias, Cláudia Gonçalves, Paulo Nuno Vicente and Ana Lúcia Mena

Engaging communities at risk of social exclusion poses a big challenge for science communicators. We schematize a framework for projects using science & art to promote social inclusion, composed of 3 phases — design, plan and collaboration; implementation; and evaluation. We present a case study that aimed to engage with a community of migrant senior women, mostly illiterate. Our findings suggest high engagement was achieved by building trust, involving emotions, choosing a relatable topic and following participatory practices. Inclusive activities occurred on the short-term, but for medium-term impact, community insiders need to be regarded as a second audience.

https://doi.org/10.22323/2.20020205

Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks and Burial Rates in Intertidal Vegetated Habitats of a Mesotidal Coastal Lagoon

Márcio Martins, Carmen B. de los Santos, Pere Masqué, A. Rita Carrasco, Cristina Veiga-Pires & Rui Santos

Coastal vegetated ecosystems such as saltmarshes and seagrasses are important sinks of organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (TN), with large global and local variability, driven by the confluence of many physical and ecological factors. Here we show that sedimentary OC and TN stocks of intertidal saltmarsh (Sporobolus maritimus) and seagrass (Zostera noltei) habitats increased between two- and fourfold along a decreasing flow velocity gradient in Ria Formosa lagoon (south Portugal). A similar twofold increase was also observed for OC and TN burial rates of S. maritimus and of almost one order of magnitude for Z. noltei. Stable isotope mixing models identify allochthonous particulate organic matter as the main source to the sedimentary pools in both habitats (39–68%). This is the second estimate of OC stocks and the first of OC burial rates in Z. noltei, a small, fast-growing species that is widely distributed in Europe (41,000 ha) and which area is presently expanding (8600 ha in 2000s). Its wide range of OC stocks (29–99 Mg ha−1) and burial rates (15–122 g m2 y−1) observed in Ria Formosa highlight the importance of investigating the drivers of such variability to develop global blue carbon models. The TN stocks (7–11 Mg ha−1) and burial rates (2–4 g m−2 y−1) of Z. noltei were generally higher than seagrasses elsewhere. The OC and TN stocks (29–101 and 3–11 Mg ha−1, respectively) and burial rates (19–39 and 3–5 g m−2 y−1) in S. maritimus saltmarshes are generally lower than those located in estuaries subjected to larger accumulation of terrestrial organic matter.

 

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10021-021-00660-6

Ervilia castanea (Mollusca, Bivalvia) populations adversely affected at CO2 seeps in the North Atlantic

Marta Martins, Marina Carreiro-Silva, Gustavo M.Martins, Joana Barcelos e Ramos, Fátima Viveiros, Ruben P.Couto, Hugo Parra, João Monteiro, Francesca Gallo, Catarina Silva, Alexandra Teodósio, Katja Guilini, Jason M.Hall-Spencer, Francisco Leitão, Luís Chícharo, Pedro Range

Sites with naturally high CO2 conditions provide unique opportunities to forecast the vulnerability of coastal ecosystems to ocean acidification, by studying the biological responses and potential adaptations to this increased environmental variability. In this study, we investigated the bivalve Ervilia castanea in coastal sandy sediments at reference sites and at volcanic CO2 seeps off the Azores, where the pH of bottom waters ranged from average oceanic levels of 8.2, along gradients, down to 6.81, in carbonated seawater at the seeps. The bivalve population structure changed markedly at the seeps. Large individuals became less abundant as seawater CO2 levels rose and were completely absent from the most acidified sites. In contrast, small bivalves were most abundant at the CO2 seeps. We propose that larvae can settle and initially live in high abundances under elevated CO2 levels, but that high rates of post-settlement dispersal and/or mortality occur. Ervilia castanea were susceptible to elevated CO2 levels and these effects were consistently associated with lower food supplies. This raises concerns about the effects of ocean acidification on the brood stock of this species and other bivalve molluscs with similar life history traits.

 

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142044

Carboniferous palynoevents in the circum-Arctic region

Gunn Manderud, Gilda Lopes, Jonathan Bujak

The Carboniferous of the present-day Arctic yields an abundant and diverse association of terrestrial palynomorphs, particularly from Mississippian successions. Relatively few sections have been studied. However, those published so far demonstrate considerable similarities in the palynofloras between Arctic regions. Based on the published record, we present a compilation of 31 last occurrences (LOs), first occurrences (FOs), and some abundance events that have correlation potential around the Arctic. The chronostratigraphic resolution is relatively low, and the lack of independent age control hampers exact age assignments. But for most of these successions, palynology is the only dating tool available.

 

https://doi.org/10.4138/atlgeol.2021.003

Late Permian palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Matinde Formation in the Muarádzi Sub-basin, Moatize-Minjova Basin, Mozambique

Gilda Lopes, Zélia Pereira, Paulo Fernandes, Márcia Mendes, João Marques, Raul C.G.S.Jorge

A multidisciplinary study involving lithofacies analysis, palynofacies, and palynology is presented for the Muarádzi Sub-basin. This sub-basin is part of the Moatize-Minjova Basin (MMB), an important Karoo aged coalfield in Mozambique.

A total of 99 core samples from 3 coal exploration boreholes (DW11, DW21, and DW141) were analysed and all the successions were assigned a Lopingian age based on palynology. According to the data, in the Muarádzi Sub-basin, a vast lowland fluvial setting existed with floodplains and wetlands, in an area controlled by tectonic movements associated with a continental rifting phase. Typical vegetation of the Glossopteris Province is recorded in the palynological assemblages of this sub-basin, which allowed for the characterization of a flora dominated by glossopterids (Protohaploxypinus and Striatopodocarpites) and gymnosperm pollen (Alisporites). Other palynomorphs revealed the presence of gingkoales, ferns (Filicopsida), sphenopsids, and lycopsids in the area, indicating a typical lowland setting. Humid and warm climates, associated with higher CO2 atmospheric levels, promoted the growth of widespread vegetation that led to the development of the thick coal beds in anoxic to dysoxic depositional environments.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2021.104138

Permian stratigraphy and palynology of the Lower Karoo Group in Mozambique – a 2020 perspective

Lopes, Gilda; Pereira, Zélia; Fernandes, Paulo; Marques, João; Mendes, Márcia; Götz, Annette E.

In the past decade, the increase in the number of palynological works in Mozambique documents the significance of palynology in dating the late Palaeozoic basins in this region of southwestern Gondwana. The new information gained mainly from the study of the Moatize-Minjova Coal Basin is the basis for a better understanding of the regional biostratigraphy, as well as of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic conditions during the Permian. Here we provide a review on the Permian palynostratigraphy and its implications for lithostratigraphic correlation of Lower Karoo basins in Mozambique. The new biostratigraphic information leads to the conclusion that an age update for the lithostratigraphic units established for the Lower Karoo in Mozambique (Vúzi, Moatize, and Matinde formations) is most needed. The Cisuralian palynological association in Mozambique is characterized by long-range taxa recorded since the middle Cisuralian (Sakmarian to Artinskian) (Alisporites spp., Cannanoropollis spp., Horriditriletes spp., Laevigatosporites spp., Potonieisporites spp., Protohaploxypinus spp.). Several first occurrences are also recorded in the late Cisuralian (Kungurian) (e.g., Cirratriradites africanensis, Marsupipollenites triradiatus, and Vittatina spp.). The Guadalupian association is mainly characterized by taxa that extend their range since the Cisuralian (e.g., Alisporites spp., Cirratriradites africanensis, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Horriditriletes ramosus, Kraeuselisporites enormis, Lueckisporites virkkiae, Limitisporites monstruosus, Marsupipollenites striatus, M. triradiatus, Pakhapites fusus, Platysaccus papilionis, Thymospora pseudothiessenii, and Weylandites lucifer), with only few first occurrences (Lueckisporites virkkiae, Striatopodocarpites cancellatus, and S. fusus) and last occurrences (Cirratriradites africanensis, Limitisporites monstruosos) being recorded. The Lopingian palynological association includes most of the taxa described for the Guadalupian. In contrast, Corisaccites alutas, Indotriradites niger, Klausipollenites schaubergeri, Lunatisporites pellucidus, Osmundacidites senectus, Polypodiisporites spp., P. mutabilis, and Protohaploxypinus microcorpus are recorded for the first time. Indication of the proximity to the Permian-Triassic Boundary is supported by the occurrence of Klausipollenites schaubergeri, Protohaploxypinus microcorpus, and Osmundacidites senectus in the upper part of the Matinde Formation. Based on the palynological data, the oldest rock unit, the Vúzi Formation, was deposited in the Permian (middle Cisuralian), and no older sedimentary rocks are currently known for the Lower Karoo Group in Mozambique. The palynological associations described also indicate that the deposition of the Moatize Formation occurred from the middle Cisuralian to the latest Guadalupian/early Lopingian, whilst the deposition of the Matinde Formation lasted from the late Guadalupian to the latest Lopingian. Thus, the boundary between both formations is assumed to be diachronous.

https://doi.org/10.1127/NOS/2021/0618

Palynostratigraphic reassessment of the Late Devonian of Bjørnøya, Svalbard

Gilda Lopes, Gunn Mangerud, Geoff Clayton, Jorunn Os Vigran

A comprehensive study of the Late Devonian palynostratigraphy of Bjørnøya, Svalbard Archipelago is presented. A total of 61 samples collected from 10 outcrops located along the eastern coast of the island were analyzed for palynology yielding a mid- to latest Famennian age. A reassessment of the existing palynostratigraphy of the Ursa Sandstone Unit of the Røedvika Formation was undertaken. As no independent age control exists for this succession, the palynological assemblages were correlated to well-calibrated palynological zonations from the Eastern and Western Europe. The middle to upper part of the Vesalstranda Member and the Kapp Levin Member were assigned a mid- to late Famennian age (CVa to VF biozones), and the middle to lower-upper part of the Tunheim Member was dated as latest Famennian in age (LL to LN biozones). For the first time, a palynological age was assigned to the upper part of the Kapp Levin Member. Correlation with other Arctic areas show close resemblance to Late Devonian assemblages from Europe and the Arctic region. However, differences in the stratigraphical ranges of several taxa were identified. In terms of Late Devonian paleophytogeographic provinces the miospore assemblages are assigned to the Northern Euroamerican Cornispora varicornata Realm for the mid-Famennian. A more cosmopolitan trend was recognized for the latest Famennian (Strunian), with assemblages including abundant Retispora lepidophyta. The paleobotanical affinities of the palynomorphs reveal a flora of lycopods and progymnosperms occupying this area during the Late Devonian, with Retispora lepidophyta becoming a common element in the latest Famennian.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2020.104376

Simulating Destructive and Constructive Morphodynamic Processes in Steep Beaches

Katerina Kombiadou,Susana Costas and Dano Roelvink

Short-term beach morphodynamics are typically modelled solely through storm-induced erosion, disregarding post-storm recovery. Yet, the full cycle of beach profile response is critical to simulating and understanding morphodynamics over longer temporal scales. The XBeach model is calibrated using topographic profiles from a reflective beach (Faro Beach, in S. Portugal) during and after the incidence of a fierce storm (Emma) that impacted the area in early 2018. Recovery in all three profiles showed rapid steepening of the beachface and significant recovery of eroded volumes (68–92%) within 45 days after the storm, while berm heights reached 4.5–5 m. Two calibration parameters were used (facua and bermslope), considering two sets of values, one for erosive (Hm0 ≥ 3 m) and one for accretive (Hm0 < 3 m) conditions. A correction of the runup height underestimation by the model in surfbeat mode was necessary to reproduce the measured berm elevation and morphology during recovery. Simulated profiles effectively capture storm erosion, but also berm growth and gradual recovery of the profiles, showing good skill in all three profiles and recovery phases. These experiments will be the basis to formulate event-scale simulations using schematized wave forcing that will allow to calibrate the model for longer-term changes.

https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010086

Estimation of river flow using CubeSats remote sensing

Adriano M.Junqueira, Feng Mao, Tatiana S.G.Mendes, Silvio J.C.Simões, José A.P.Balestieri, David M.Hannah

River flow characterizes the integrated response from watersheds, so it is essential to quantify to understand the changing water cycle and underpin the sustainable management of freshwaters. However, river gauging stations are in decline with ground-based observation networks shrinking. This study proposes a novel approach of estimating river flows using the Planet CubeSats constellation with the possibility to monitor on a daily basis at the sub-catchment scale through remote sensing. The methodology relates the river discharge to the water area that is extracted from the satellite image analysis. As a testbed, a series of Surface Reflectance PlanetScope images and observed streamflow data in Araguaia River (Brazil) were selected to develop and validate the methodology. The study involved the following steps: (1) survey of measurements of water level and river discharge using in-situ data from gauge-based Conventional Station (CS) and measurements of altimetry using remote data from JASON-2 Virtual Station (JVS); (2) survey of Planet CubeSat images for dates in step 1 and without cloud cover; (3) image preparation including clipping based on different buffer areas and calculation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) per image; (4) water bodies areas calculation inside buffers in the Planet CubeSat images; and (5) correlation analysis of CubeSat water bodies areas with JVS and CS data. Significant correlations between the water bodies areas with JVS (R2 = 88.83%) and CS (R2 = 96.49%) were found, indicating that CubeSat images can be used as a CubeSat Virtual Station (CVS) to estimate the river flow. This newly proposed methodology using CubeSats allows for more accurate results than the JVS-based method used by the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA) at present. Moreover, CVS requires small areas of remote sensing data to estimate with high accuracy the river flow and the height variation of the water in different timeframes. This method can be used to monitor sub-basin scale discharge and to improve water management, particularly in developing countries where the presence of conventional stations is often very limited.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147762

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) adsorbed to polyethylene microplastics: Accumulation and ecotoxicological effects in the clam Scrobicularia plana

Naimul Islam, Tainá Garcia da Fonseca, Juliano Vilke, Joanna M.Gonçalves, Paulo Pedro, Steffen Keiter, Sara C.Cunha, José O.Fernandes, M.J.Bebianno

Microplastics are widespread in the marine environment, whereby the uptake of these tiny particles by organisms, can cause adverse biological responses. Plastic debris also act as a vector of many contaminants, herein depending on type, size, shape and chemical properties, possibly intensifying their effects on marine organisms. This study aimed to assess the accumulation and potential toxicity of different sizes of microplastics with and without adsorbed perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in the clam Scrobicularia plana. Clams were exposed to low-density polyethylene microplastics (1 mg L−1) of two different sizes (4–6 and 20–25 μm) virgin and contaminated with PFOS (55.7 ± 5.3 and 46.1 ± 2.9 μg g−1 respectively) over 14 days. Microplastic ingestion, PFOS accumulation and filtration rate were determined along with a multi biomarker approach to assess the biological effects of microplastics ingestion. Biomarkers include oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidases), biotransformation enzymes (glutathione-S-transferases activity), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity), oxidative damage and apoptosis. Microplastics ingestion and PFOS accumulation was microplastic size dependent but not PFOS dependent and filtration rate was reduced at the end of the exposure. Reactive oxygen species in gills and digestive gland were generated as a result of exposure to both types of microplastics, confirming the disturbance of the antioxidant system. Larger virgin microparticles lead to stronger impacts, when compared to smaller ones which was also supported by the Integrated Biomarker Responses index calculated for both tissues. An anti-apoptotic response was detected in digestive glands under exposure to any of the MPs treatments.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105249

Nanoplastics impact on marine biota: A review

Joanna M.Gonçalves and Maria João Bebianno

Emerging contaminants, such as nanoplastics, are gaining a vast interest within the scientific community. Most of the plastic debris found in the marine environment originates from land-based sources, and once in the marine environment, plastic can be degraded into smaller fragments. Nanoplastics are considered to fall within the definition of other nanoparticles (1–100 nm in size) and may be divided into primary or secondary nanoplastics. Primary nanoplastics are those that enter the environment in their original small size associated with specific applications and consumer products, whilst secondary nanoplastics are a consequence of macro/microplastic degradation. The formation of nanoplastics changes the physical-chemical characteristics of the particle, thus at a nanoscale, it is expected that the strength, conductivity, and reactivity of the nanoparticles will differ substantially from macro/micro-sized particles. To date, the toxicity nanoplastics may pursue on marine biota is still scarce. Herein, a review of the available data on the effects of different polymer types of nanoplastics specific to marine biota is accounted for.

 

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116426

Biochemical Characterization of the Amylase Activity from the New Haloarchaeal Strain Haloarcula sp. HS Isolated in the Odiel Marshlands

Patricia Gómez-Villegas,Javier Vigara,Luis Romero,Cecilia Gotor,Sara Raposo,Brígida Gonçalves and Rosa Léon

Alpha-amylases are a large family of α,1-4-endo-glycosyl hydrolases distributed in all kingdoms of life. The need for poly-extremotolerant amylases encouraged their search in extreme environments, where archaea become ideal candidates to provide new enzymes that are able to work in the harsh conditions demanded in many industrial applications. In this study, a collection of haloarchaea isolated from Odiel saltern ponds in the southwest of Spain was screened for their amylase activity. The strain that exhibited the highest activity was selected and identified as Haloarcula sp. HS. We demonstrated the existence in both, cellular and extracellular extracts of the new strain, of functional α-amylase activities, which showed to be moderately thermotolerant (optimum around 60 °C), extremely halotolerant (optimum over 25% NaCl), and calcium-dependent. The tryptic digestion followed by HPLC-MS/MS analysis of the partially purified cellular and extracellular extracts allowed to identify the sequence of three alpha-amylases, which despite sharing a low sequence identity, exhibited high three-dimensional structure homology, conserving the typical domains and most of the key consensus residues of α-amylases. Moreover, we proved the potential of the extracellular α-amylase from Haloarcula sp. HS to treat bakery wastes under high salinity conditions.

 

https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10040337

Effects of Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Quality and Shelf-Life of Gray Triggerfish (Balistes capriscus) Fillets

Eduardo Esteves, Luís Guerra and Jaime Aníbal

Seafood products are perceived as healthy foods. However, several species of seafood are still not fully utilized for different reasons or can be valued outside the original locale, if issues with the short shelf-life and/or the preparation/presentation form are overcome, e.g., gray triggerfish, Balistes capriscus. Consumed mostly fresh, its flesh is of excellent quality. We studied the effect of different types of packaging (in air (AIR), vacuum (VP), and modified atmosphere (MAP)) on physicochemical (color and texture, pH, and total volatile basic nitrogen), microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic, sulphide-reducing bacteria, and acid-lactic bacteria), and sensory qualities, and shelf-life of gray triggerfish fillets stored at refrigeration temperature for 15 days. The samples were analyzed on days 0 (fresh fish), 5, 10 (8 and 12 for sensory analysis), and 15 after filleting and packaging. During the trial, fillets became lighter (increased L*) and yellower (b* >> 0) with time of storage. Distinct patterns were observed for pH among treatments. Unexpectedly, the increasing trend observed in the texturometer-derived hardness of VP and MAP fillets, contrasted with the sensory assessment, wherein panelists perceived a clear softening of fillets. VP delayed and MAP inhibited the increase in TVB-N contents of fillets compared to fillets packed in AIR. Total viable count and psychrothropic bacteria of fillets in AIR exceeded the conventional limit of 7 log(CFU/g) on day 10, while in fillets packed in VP and MAP, their abundance remained below that limit during the trial. The organoleptic attributes of fillets perceived by a sensory panel changed significantly in all treatments during the storage trial. Willingness to consume the fillets decreased constantly in AIR and MAP, but not in VP fillets. Considering primarily sensory, but also biochemical and microbiological parameters, namely panelists’ rejection, total volatile basic nitrogen content, and total viable count and psychrotrophic bacteria abundance, the shelf-life of fillets packed in air was eight days. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging extended the shelf-life to 15 and 12 days, and thus can add value to this product. Future research regarding the VP and MAP of gray triggerfish fillets could involve the optimization of mixtures of gases use and/or the application of combined processes.

https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020250

Sensory evaluation of seafood freshness using the quality index method: A meta-analysis

Eduardo Esteves, Jaime Aníbal

The quality index method (QIM) is a leading method of assessing the freshness (and thus quality) of seafood that is based on relatively few sensory attributes considered relevant. These characteristics are scored using a 0 to 3 demerit points' scale, the sum of which is designated the quality index (QI) and quantifies the specimens' lack of freshness. The linear relationship between QI and storage time allows for the estimation of remaining shelf-life. Moreover, QIM is deemed species-specific.

Meta-analysis was carried to attest the species-specificity of QIM schemes or if, otherwise, biological, ecological, procedural and methodological parameters, alone or in combination, justify schemes' categorization. The variation among the QIM schemes was analyzed using random/mixed-effects models of 68 primary studies. The correlation coefficient associated with linear relationship between the QIM scores and storage time was the designated effect.

This study is the first to use of meta-analysis to summarize QIM schemes developed since the inception of the method in the early 1980s. The initial random-effects meta-analysis model indicated that the correlation coefficients associated with QIM averaged 0.982 (95% CI: 0.978–0.986). The considerable remaining heterogeneity (Q = 152.06, p < 0.0008) was further investigated as a function of moderator variables. Several moderator variables, per se or in combination, namely seafood group (bluefish, whitefish, Selachii, cephalopods and crustaceans), storage procedure (ice, water, air, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging) and temperature (°C), family and habitat (marine and freshwater), and maximum number of demerit points in QIM were found to have significant effects (QM, 0.0002 < p < 0.0919) on correlation coefficients derived from QIM schemes. Notwithstanding, at this stage of the analysis none clearly justified the categorization of QIM schemes since substantial residual heterogeneity remained unexplained in almost every case and there were issues with influential studies. Then, in a mixed-effects meta-analysis of a subset of studies for whole specimens stored in ice, seafood groups and maximum number of demerit points were found to be significant moderators (QM, p = 0.0018 and p = 0.0173, respectively). Correlation coefficients were higher in studies developing QIM schemes for cephalopods compared to the other seafood groups and in studies with lower sum of demerit points. The potential issues with publication bias and influence analysis are discussed. We cannot rule out the species-specificity of QIM schemes that have been stated previously and that constitutes a relative advantage compared to other methods of assessment seafood freshness based on sensory analysis, particularly the EU grading scheme.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108934

 

Place attachment, risk perception, and preparedness in a population exposed to coastal hazards: A case study in Faro Beach, southern Portugal

Rita B.Domingues, Saúl Neves de Jesus, Óscar Ferreira

Living by the coast is a high-risk choice, but most people do it voluntarily. At Faro Beach, a heavily urbanized settlement located on a sandy barrier peninsula exposed to coastal hazards, houses and roads were destroyed due to storm action. However, residents feel safe living there and have no intentions of relocating. The development and implementation of coastal management plans and disaster risk reduction measures require the understanding of psychological drivers of residents' risk perception and behaviours. Thus, the main goal of this study is to evaluate the relationships between place attachment, risk perception, and preparedness in Faro Beach. We hypothesized that place attachment and past experience with hazards would have a negative effect on risk perception, while risk perception would positively influence preparedness. We administered a self-report questionnaire to 131 residents, and analysed the data using partial least squares modelling. Results show that stronger place attachment is associated with lower risk perception, as residents tend to accept the risk as part of their environment. Experience contributed to higher risk perception in Faro Beach residents, most likely because residents have had direct and personal experience with hazards and are fully aware of the consequences. In addition, risk perception was negatively associated with preparedness; although residents’ risk perception is moderate, probably due to risk normalisation, they still make some preparations to deal with a potential disaster. This study is useful for the design and implementation of more sustainable coastal management plans, as it validates the relevance of affective variables in risk perception and preparedness.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102288

The structure of incipient coastal counter currents in South Portugal as indicator of their forcing agents

L. De Oliveira Júnior, E.Garel, P.Relvas

The alongshore subtidal water circulation along the South Portugal inner shelf is characterized by the temporal alternation of equatorward (i.e., broadly eastward) flows related to coastal upwelling processes and poleward (i.e., broadly westward) Coastal Counter Currents (CCCs). The objective of this study is to get insights about the main drivers of CCCs based on kinematic parameters describing the structure of the flow at the moment it changes direction. The parameters are derived from an extensive bottom-mounted ADCP dataset (16 deployments; 34,121 hourly records) collected at a single mooring (23 m water depth). Results show that the so-called incipient flows present contrasted general patterns whether they turn from equatorward to poleward or the opposite. Complementary observations at a nearby station indicate that these characteristics are spatially consistent along the studied area. Although 70% of CCCs are generated under favourable wind conditions (Levanter), these flows generally develop through the bed layer, in particular in summer. Hence, the Levanter wind - expected to promote flow setup through the surface layer - is not the main driver of CCCs in most cases. The general structure of incipient CCCs strongly suggests that the dominant force competing with the wind stress is an alongshore pressure gradient (APG). Furthermore, the maximum equatorward flow magnitude before CCCs setup is significantly correlated with the following (poleward) acceleration of incipient CCCs near the bed. Such relation is consistent with the development of CCCs due to the unbalance of an APG (produced during active upwelling) when wind relaxes. This process is further supported by an analysis of the depth-averaged momentum equation which suggests that the coastal circulation is mainly driven by linear dynamics in the region.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2020.103486

Metal Bioaccumulation by the Neotropical Clam Anomalocardia flexuosa to Estimate the Quality of Estuarine Sediments

Ana C. F. Cruz, Guacira F. E. Pauly, Giuliana S. Araujo, Paloma Gusso-Choueri, Tainá G. Fonseca, Bruno G. Campos, Ricardo E. Santelli, A. S. Freire, Bernardo F. Braz, Alice Bosco-Santos, Wanilson Luiz-Silva, Wilson Machado & Denis M. S. Abessa

This investigation evaluated the bioaccumulation potential of the tropical estuarine bivalve Anomalocardia flexuosa for trace metals. To this aim, chemical and sedimentological analyses and bioaccumulation tests were performed. The sediments were mainly composed by fine-sands and mud, with variable levels of organic matter and CaCO3. Muddy sediments from a depositional site (P2) presented the highest concentrations of metals, despite SEM/AVS not indicating bioavailability. Bioaccumulation factors showed high ratios for Cd, Ni, and Zn, while associations between the contents of mud, organic matter, CaCO3 and metals in sediments and tissues of A. flexuosa were indicated by a principal component analysis. The SEM/AVS was not effective to predict the bioavailability through dissolved metals. The results showed that contaminants were bioavailable, while the performed bioaccumulation test proved to be a reliable technique for assessing sediment contamination in estuarine regions. Moreover, A. flexuosa was considered an adequate test organism for bioaccumulation studies.

https://doi.org/10.1007/S00128-020-03062-X

Alternative chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis strategy applied to different microalgae species for bioethanol production

A.Constantino, B.Rodrigues, R.Leon, R.Barros, S.Raposo

Microalgae have been considered third generation feedstock for biofuel production based on the expectation that large amounts of algal biomass can be cultivated at an acceptable cost. Transformation of biomass into ethanol requires a saccharification step, where complex carbohydrates are broken down by hydrolysis into sugars that can be fermented to bioethanol. Carbohydrate mobilization is hampered by the recalcitrance of the cell envelope of microalgal cells, because complex structural polysaccharides are difficult to depolymerize and make internal carbohydrate reserves inaccessible to hydrolysis. Saccharification can be accomplished by either acidic hydrolysis, enzymatic treatment or a combination of both.

The present work focused on the chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of lyophilized biomass of different microalgae and subsequent fermentation of hydrolysates with higher reducing sugar content. A chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis strategy was defined, consisting of an acid pretreatment carried out at high pressure and temperature, followed by incubation with Amyloglucosidase and finally by incubation with α-Amylase, the opposite order of the conventional use of these enzymes. An increase of reducing sugar yield of about one third was observed, and this strategy was successfully applied to a broad group of microalgae, resulting in maximum release yields of at least 34.0 ± 1.0 g total reducing sugar/100 g dry biomass.

For bioethanol production studies, the microalgae hydrolysates of Chlorella sorokiniana, Tetraselmis sp. (Necton) and Skeletonema sp. were selected according to their high reducing sugar content. High ethanol production was achieved with all hydrolysates, with ethanol yields close to the theoretical maximum and the highest ethanol concentrations so far reported under comparable conditions. Chlorella sorokiniana stood out as the best hydrolysate for ethanol production, with an ethanol yield of 0.464 ± 0.013 g/g reducing sugar and ethanol productivity of 0.344 ± 0.020 g/ L.h.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102329

Drought, fire and grazing precursors to large-scale pine forest decline

Simon E. Connor, João Araújo, Tomasz Boski, Ana Gomes, Sandra D. Gomes, Manel Leira, Maria da Conceição Freitas,Cesar Andrade, César Morales-Molino, Fátima Franco-Múgica, Rufus B. Akindola, Boris Vannière

Temperate forests are currently facing multiple stresses due to climate change, biological invasions, habitat fragmentation and fire regime change. How these stressors interact with each other influences how, when and whether ecosystems recover, or whether they adapt or transition to a different ecological state. Because forest recovery or collapse may take longer than a human lifetime, predicting the outcomes of different stressor combinations remains difficult. A clearer vision of future forest trajectories in a changing world may be gained by examining collapses of forests in the past. Here, we use long-term ecological data to conduct a post-mortem examination of the decline of maritime pine forests (Pinus pinaster Ait.) on the SW Iberian Peninsula 7000–6500 years ago.

 

https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.13261

Effect of Using Multi-Year Land Use Land Cover and Monthly LAI Inputs on the Calibration of a Distributed Hydrologic Model

Ibrahim Olayode Busari, Mehmet Cüneyd Demirel, and Alice Newton

Effective management of water resources entails the understanding of spatiotemporal changes in hydrologic fluxes with variation in land use, especially with a growing trend of urbanization, agricultural lands and non-stationarity of climate. This study explores the use of satellite-based Land Use Land Cover (LULC) data while simultaneously correcting potential evapotranspiration (PET) input with Leaf Area Index (LAI) to increase the performance of a physically distributed hydrologic model. The mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) was selected for this purpose due to its unique features. Since LAI input informs the model about vegetation dynamics, we incorporated the LAI based PET correction option together with multi-year LULC data. The Globcover land cover data was selected for the single land cover cases, and hybrid of CORINE (coordination of information on the environment) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) land cover datasets were chosen for the cases with multiple land cover datasets. These two datasets complement each other since MODIS has no separate forest class but more frequent (yearly) observations than CORINE. Calibration period spans from 1990 to 2006 and corresponding NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency) values varies between 0.23 and 0.42, while the validation period spans from 2007 to 2010 and corresponding NSE values are between 0.13 and 0.39. The results revealed that the best performance is obtained when multiple land cover datasets are provided to the model and LAI data is used to correct PET, instead of default aspect-based PET correction in mHM. This study suggests that to minimize errors due to parameter uncertainties in physically distributed hydrologic models, adequate information can be supplied to the model with care taken to avoid over-parameterizing the model.

https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111538

 

Tuda, A., Kark, S., Newton, A. (2020). Polycentricity and adaptive governance of transboundary marine socialecological systems. Ocean and Coastal Management, 105412, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105412

Tuda, A., Kark, S., Newton, A. 

Transboundary marine socio-ecological systems (SESs) are complex and dynamic systems. Enhancing the sustainability of such systems requires adaptive governance supported by polycentric structures. However, adaptive governance of marine SESs across national boundaries can be challenging, as significant differences in institutional arrangements for resource management and adaptive governance capabilities may exist. The limitations of various institutional arrangements and the challenges of adaptive governance across borders are still poorly understood. We offer a comparative study of two marine co-management systems, in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania, which are bound by different legislative environments to elucidate how institutions might limit or enable adaptive governance at the local and transboundary scale. The legislative environment is characterized based on a review of the literature. The structural properties of the co-management systems are examined for evidence of polycentricity using social network analysis. Across the different co-management contexts, we discover similar and distinct institutional opportunities and challenges for adaptive governance. Both co-management regimes foster the participation of diverse actors and multiple interactions. However, both show strong sectoral tendencies and high centrality of government, which can hinder adaptive governance. There are more autonomous decision units in Tanzania's co-management network, hence a more robust social context for polycentricism compared to Kenya. A shift towards enhanced polycentricity to foster adaptive governance of the Kenya-Tanzania transboundary marine SES will require policy frameworks that enhance cross-sectoral integration and create opportunities for multi-stakeholder bridging.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105412

Islam, N., Garcia da Fonseca, T., Vilke, J., Gonçalves, J. M., Pedro, P., Keiter, S., Cunha, S. C., Fernandes, J. O., Bebianno, M. J.. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) adsorbed to polyethylene microplastics: accumulation and ecotoxicological effect

Islam, N., Garcia da Fonseca, T., Vilke, J., Gonçalves, J. M., Pedro, P., Keiter, S., Cunha, S. C., Fernandes, J. O., Bebianno, M. J.

Microplastics are widespread in the marine environment, whereby the uptake of these tiny particles by organisms, can cause adverse biological responses. Plastic debris also act as a vector of many contaminants, herein depending on type, size, shape and chemical properties, possibly intensifying their effects on marine organisms. This study aimed to assess the accumulation and potential toxicity of different sizes of microplastics with and without adsorbed perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in the clam Scrobicularia plana. Clams were exposed to low-density polyethylene microplastics (1 mg L−1) of two different sizes (4–6 and 20–25 μm) virgin and contaminated with PFOS (55.7 ± 5.3 and 46.1 ± 2.9 μg g−1 respectively) over 14 days. Microplastic ingestion, PFOS accumulation and filtration rate were determined along with a multi biomarker approach to assess the biological effects of microplastics ingestion. Biomarkers include oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidases), biotransformation enzymes (glutathione-S-transferases activity), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity), oxidative damage and apoptosis. Microplastics ingestion and PFOS accumulation was microplastic size dependent but not PFOS dependent and filtration rate was reduced at the end of the exposure. Reactive oxygen species in gills and digestive gland were generated as a result of exposure to both types of microplastics, confirming the disturbance of the antioxidant system. Larger virgin microparticles lead to stronger impacts, when compared to smaller ones which was also supported by the Integrated Biomarker Responses index calculated for both tissues. An anti-apoptotic response was detected in digestive glands under exposure to any of the MPs treatments.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105249

Torregroza Espinosa, A.C., Restrepo, J.C., Escobar, J.H., Pierini, J., Newton, A. (2020b). Spatial and temporal variability of temperature, salinity and chlorophyll-a in the Magdalena River mouth, Caribbean Sea. Journal of South American Earth Sciences,

Torregroza Espinosa, A.C., Restrepo, J.C., Escobar, J.H., Pierini, J., Newton, A.

Variations in the physico-chemical characteristics of estuaries, such as surface water salinity and temperature, lead to the establishment of gradients that are closely related with the distribution of nutrients and suspended sediment. This affects light penetration, which in turn influences Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration and primary productivity. We used MODIS imagery to identify spatio-temporal patterns of sea surface salinity, temperature, and Chl-a concentrations from 2003 to 2017, to explore relationships between these variables and oceanographic factors, such as streamflows, winds and currents in the mouth of Colombia's Magdalena River, which discharges to the Caribbean Sea. Sea surface salinity (SSS) in the study zone varied in time and space from estuarine to marine. Mean SSS was 10.8 ± 3.4 at Bocas de Ceniza, and 28.4 ± 0.4 in the Caribbean Sea, with the horizontal salinity gradient providing evidence for the existence of a salinity plume. Mean monthly sea surface temperatures (SST) averaged across all years were 27.6 ± 1.5 °C at Bocas de Ceniza, and 27.6 ± 1.3 °C in the Caribbean Sea. A significant, increasing trend in temperature was observed throughout the years of the study period. Average Chl-a values were 3.3 ± 1.4 mg m−3 at Bocas de Ceniza, and 1.5 ± 1.2 mg m−3 in the Caribbean Sea and the calculated average Trophic State Index (TSI) for Bocas de Ceniza indicated that the estuary trophic state varied between oligo-mesotrophic (30 < TSI≤40) and mesotrophic (40 < TSI≤50). The highest concentrations of Chl-a were found in intermediate salinities in the estuarine zone. Outside the saline plume, there is a considerable decrease in Chl-a concentrations (<0.5 mg m−3). Winds played the most important role in influencing spatio-temporal distribution of chemical and physical variables in the study zone. Our results emphasize the importance of physical processes on biological dynamics in the Magdalena River mouth.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2020.102978

Costas, S., Bon de Sousa, L., Kombiadou, K., Ferreira, Ó., Plomaritis, T.A. (2020). Exploring foredune growth capacity in a coarse sandy beach. Geomorphology, 371, 107435, DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2020.107435

Costas, S., Bon de Sousa, L., Kombiadou, K., Ferreira, Ó., Plomaritis, T.A.

Dunes are key elements of coastal landscapes in almost every latitude. They host high levels of biodiversity and provide important benefits to society; e.g. protection against floods and erosion, or recreation. Coastal dune growth is constrained by intrinsic factors, which are critical when managing dune systems or choosing coastal dune restoration as an alternative green solution for coastal protection. Here, the evolution of a beach-dune system, characterized by a reflective coarse sandy beach and low dunes, is explored to identify the favourable and optimal conditions for dune growth in these settings. Dune growth capacity is evaluated by analysing the topographical changes observed along a coastal dune over two different temporal scales (interannual and event scale) and comparing the observations with theoretical approximations of sediment transport potentials. Observations and predictions over interannual scale document that (1) temporal variability in external conditions (wind regime) and spatial variability of estimated wind fetch length, alone, fail to explain alongshore dune growth patterns and (2) optimal conditions for dune growth occur when storms (strong winds) impact the study area, jointly with low runup levels, at zones of shoreline progradation and absence of direct human influence. Conversely, lowest values of dune accumulation are associated with areas where shoreline retreat was documented. Observations from event timescales suggest that sediment transport potential can be reached over zones with no significant signs of beach erosion, if runup levels remain low and the event duration is shorter than the time scale of sand surface depletion within the upper beach.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2020.107435

Fernandes, E., Fonseca, T.G., Carriço, T., Mestre, N.C., Tavares, A., Bebianno, M. (2020). Cytotoxic responses of the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and comparative sensitivity with human cells lines. Chemospher

Fernandes, E., Fonseca, T.G., Carriço, T., Mestre, N.C., Tavares, A., Bebianno, M

The rise of cancer cases worldwide led to an increase in production and consumption of anticancer drugs, that ultimately end up in the marine environment and are accumulated in aquatic organisms. Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a cytotoxic alkylating agent frequently prescribed in cancer treatments. This study assess ecotoxicological effects of CP on mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, through in vivo and ex vivo approaches and compares the sensitivity of mussel haemocytes with well-established human cell lines (RPE and HeLa). Mussels were exposed in vivo to CP (1000 ng L−1) and several biomarkers analysed in gills and digestive glands namely neurotoxicity (AChE activity), oxidative stress (GPx activity), biotransformation (GST activity), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and apoptosis (caspase activity), whereas genotoxicity was determined in mussels’ haemocytes. Cytotoxicity was also assessed in haemocytes (in vivo and ex vivo) and human cell lines (in vitro) exposed to a range of CP concentrations (50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 ng L−1) over 24 h, via neutral red assay.

In in vivo exposure, detoxification of CP did not efficiently occur in the gills while in digestive glands GPx and GST activities were induced, jointly with a decrease in lipid peroxidation, indicating a potential outcome of the protective antioxidant mechanisms, whereas no apoptosis was noted. Moreover, cytotoxicity and DNA damage were detected in haemocytes. The ex vivo exposure haemocytes to CP caused cytotoxicity (from 100 ng L−1), whereas no effects occurred in human cell lines. This suggests that, at relevant environmental concentrations, CP cause subtle and irreversible impacts on M. galloprovincialis.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127678

 

Martinez, G., Costas, S., Ferreira, Ó. (2020). The role of culture and informal aspects for coastal disaster risk reduction measures: Empirical evidence from northern and southern Europe, Advances in Climate Change Research, 11, 4, 297-309. https://doi.

Martinez, G., Costas, S., Ferreira, Ó.

Recent and historic high-impact events have demonstrated significant flood risks to many coastal areas in Europe and across the globe. Understanding the behavior of humans in relation to risk management poses grand challenges for both natural and social sciences and humanities. The study analyzes the cultural aspects of coastal risk management and illustrates path-dependencies of concrete disaster risk reduction measures in relation to local contexts in European coastal regions in Northern and South Western Europe. It adopts a comparative approach by targeting risk perception and risk management related to coastal floods and erosion, induced by storms and sea level rise, in two contrasting coastal areas: German coastal state Schleswig–Holstein at the Baltic Sea (especially the communities Eckernförde and Timmendorfer Strand) and the Portuguese barrier island system of Ria Formosa (especially the community of Faro Beach). Both regions are very low lying with only a few meters above sea level and exposed to similar hazards such as erosion and floods induced by coastal storms, and while they are both attractive touristic destinations, they are culturally, socio-economically and politically very different. The geographical and the socio-cultural contexts of the case study regions are assessed first using an explorative approach, followed by an analysis of the relevance of cultural aspects for the implementation of disaster risk reduction measures. The study addresses both first responders (city authorities, citizens) and scholars. It is found that the choice of risk reduction measures hinges on the values underlying people's perspectives about the desired outcomes of specific measures and that the role of identity and meaning making are still undervalued in decision making processes. It concludes that subjective capacities formed by cultural identities, knowledge, trust coupled with a variety of factors of socio-economic and political texture are important to understand local decision making processes. The authors found that lively ‘culture of risk memory’, ‘trust in scientific information and community’ as well as decision making of coastal authorities coupled with inclusiveness and participation of communities in formulating and implementing disaster risk reduction measures are prerequisites for successful collaboration and in turn execution of disaster risk reduction measures.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accre.2020.11.001

Howell, K.L., Hilário, A., Allcock, A.L., Bailey, D., Baker, M., Le Bris, N., Clark, M.R., Colaço, A., Copley, J., Cordes, E., Danovaro, R., Dissanayake, A., Escobar, E., Esquete, P., Gallagher, A., Gates, A., Gaudron, S.M., German, C.R., Gjerde, K., Hi

Howell, K.L., Hilário, A., Allcock, A.L., Bailey, D., Baker, M., Le Bris, N., Clark, M.R., Colaço, A., Copley, J., Cordes, E.,
Danovaro, R., Dissanayake, A., Escobar, E., Esquete, P., Gallagher, A., Gates, A., Gaudron, S.M., German, C.R., Gjerde,
K., Higgs, N.D., Levin, L.A., Manea, E., McClain, C., Menot, L., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Milligan, R., Muthumbi, A.W.N,
Narayanaswamy, B., Ramalho, S.P., Ramirez-Llodra, E., Robson, L., Rogers, A.D., Sellanes, J., Sigwart, J., Sink, K., Snelgrove,
P.V.R., Stefanoudis, P., Sumida, P.Y., Taylor, M., Thurber, A.R., Vieira, R., Watanabe, H.K., Woodall, L., Xavier, J.R.

The ocean plays a crucial role in the functioning of the Earth System and in the provision of vital goods and services. The United Nations (UN) declared 2021–2030 as the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. The Roadmap for the Ocean Decade aims to achieve six critical societal outcomes (SOs) by 2030, through the pursuit of four objectives (Os). It specifically recognizes the scarcity of biological data for deep-sea biomes, and challenges the global scientific community to conduct research to advance understanding of deep-sea ecosystems to inform sustainable management. In this paper, we map four key scientific questions identified by the academic community to the Ocean Decade SOs: (i) What is the diversity of life in the deep ocean? (ii) How are populations and habitats connected? (iii) What is the role of living organisms in ecosystem function and service provision? and (iv) How do species, communities, and ecosystems respond to disturbance? We then consider the design of a global-scale program to address these questions by reviewing key drivers of ecological pattern and process. We recommend using the following criteria to stratify a global survey design: biogeographic region, depth, horizontal distance, substrate type, high and low climate hazard, fished/unfished, near/far from sources of pollution, licensed/protected from industry activities. We consider both spatial and temporal surveys, and emphasize new biological data collection that prioritizes southern and polar latitudes, deeper (> 2000 m) depths, and midwater environments. We provide guidance on observational, experimental, and monitoring needs for different benthic and pelagic ecosystems. We then review recent efforts to standardize biological data and specimen collection and archiving, making “sampling design to knowledge application” recommendations in the context of a new global program. We also review and comment on needs, and recommend actions, to develop capacity in deep-sea research; and the role of inclusivity - from accessing indigenous and local knowledge to the sharing of technologies - as part of such a global program. We discuss the concept of a new global deep-sea biological research program ‘Challenger 150,’ highlighting what it could deliver for the Ocean Decade and UN Sustainable Development Goal 14.

https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.584861

Howell, K.L., Hilário, A., Allcock, A.L., Bailey, D., Baker, M., Le Bris, N., Clark, M.R., Colaço, A., Copley, J., Cordes, E., Danovaro, R., Dissanayake, A., Escobar, E., Esquete, P., Gallagher, A., Gates, A., Gaudron, S.M., German, C.R., Gjerde, K., Hi

Howell, K.L., Hilário, A., Allcock, A.L., Bailey, D., Baker, M., Le Bris, N., Clark, M.R., Colaço, A., Copley, J., Cordes, E.,
Danovaro, R., Dissanayake, A., Escobar, E., Esquete, P., Gallagher, A., Gates, A., Gaudron, S.M., German, C.R., Gjerde,
K., Higgs, N.D., Levin, L.A., Manea, E., McClain, C., Menot, L., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Milligan, R., Muthumbi, A.W.N,
Narayanaswamy, B., Ramalho, S.P., Ramirez-Llodra, E., Robson, L., Rogers, A.D., Sellanes, J., Sigwart, J., Sink, K., Snelgrove,
P.V.R., Stefanoudis, P., Sumida, P.Y., Taylor, M., Thurber, A.R., Vieira, R., Watanabe, H.K., Woodall, L., Xavier, J.R.

The United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development presents an exceptional opportunity to effect positive change in ocean use. We outline what is required of the deep-sea research community to achieve these ambitious objectives.

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-01352-5

Smith, C.R., Tunnicliffe, V., Colaço, A. Drazen, J.C. Gollner, S., Levin, L.A., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Molodtsova, T., Morato, T. Sweetman, A.K., Washburn, T. Amon, D.J. (2020b). Environmental protection requires accurate application of scientific

Smith, C.R., Tunnicliffe, V., Colaço, A. Drazen, J.C. Gollner, S., Levin, L.A., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Molodtsova, T., Morato, T. Sweetman, A.K., Washburn, T. Amon, D.J.

We thank Dr Verlaan [ 1. ] for offering a legal opinion on the United Nations Convention for the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and its protections for the marine environment, inspired by reading our paper [ 2. ]. We agree that scientists and lawyers should work together to formulate deep-sea mining regulations; to this end, we have jointly authored 19 publications with lawyers on topics related to human impacts in the deep sea. We also agree that regulatory decisions concerning seabed mining must be informed both by accurate interpretations of the law and by accurate application of the best available scientific evidence.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2020.10.021

Van Dover, C., Colaco, A., Collins, P. Croot, P., Metaxas, A., Murton, B., Swaddling, A., Boschen-Rose, R., Carlsson, J., Cuyvers, L., Fukushima, T., Gartman, A., Kennedy, R. Kriete, C., Mestre, N.C., Molodtsova, T., Myhrvold, A., Pelleter, E., Popoola,

Van Dover, C., Colaco, A., Collins, P. Croot, P., Metaxas, A., Murton, B., Swaddling, A., Boschen-Rose, R., Carlsson, J., Cuyvers, L., Fukushima, T., Gartman, A., Kennedy, R. Kriete, C., Mestre, N.C., Molodtsova, T., Myhrvold, A., Pelleter, E., Popoola, S., Qian, P.-Y., Sarrazin, J., Sharma, R., Suh, Y.J., Sylvan, J., Tao, C., Tomczak, M., Vermilye, J.

Polymetallic sulfide (PMS) deposits produced at hydrothermal vents in the deep sea are of potential interest to miners. Hydrothermally active sulfide ecosystems are valued for the extraordinary chemosynthetic communities that they support. Many countries, including Canada, Portugal, and the United States, protect vent ecosystems in their Exclusive Economic Zones. When hydrothermal activity ceases temporarily (dormancy) or permanently (extinction), the habitat and associated ecosystem change dramatically. Until recently, so-called “inactive sulfide” habitats, either dormant or extinct, received little attention from biologists. However, the need for environmental management of deep-sea mining places new imperatives for building scientific understanding of the structure and function of inactive PMS deposits. This paper calls for actions of the scientific community and the emergent seabed mining industry to i) undertake fundamental ecological descriptions and study of ecosystem functions and services associated with hydrothermally inactive PMS deposits, ii) evaluate potential environmental risks to ecosystems of inactive PMS deposits through research, and iii) identify environmental management needs that may enable mining of inactive PMS deposits. Mining of some extinct PMS deposits may have reduced environmental risk compared to other seabed mining activities, but this must be validated through scientific research on a case-by-case basis.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2020.104183

Kombiadou, K., Matias, A., Costas, S., Rita Carrasco, A., Plomaritis, T. A., Ferreira, Ó. (2020b). Barrier island resilience assessment: Applying the ecological principles to geomorphological data. CATENA, 194, 104755, https://doi. org/10.1016/j.catena.2

Kombiadou, K., Matias, A., Costas, S., Rita Carrasco, A., Plomaritis, T. A., Ferreira, Ó.

Applying the ecological resilience principles to barrier island geomorphological evolution requires approaches that perceive and interpret resilience far from predefined barrier characteristics and static views. Accepting that barrier islands, like all natural systems, are dynamic and adaptively changing in response to external disturbances is fundamental to the formulated approach. To this aim, geomorphological units and dimensions were used to describe barrier island stability landscape as an actively shifting ‘topography’, reshaping in response to exogenous events and in relation to intrinsic properties. The structure of the subaerial barrier was characterised using the environmental units of Beach, Dune and Marsh (or BDM), where different combinations of BDM structure define distinct barrier stable states, under a simplified framework that is applicable over a wide range of barrier structures. The methodology is based on reconstructing resilience trajectories of barrier islands through identifying the distinct BDM states and related shifts (thresholds crossed) and assessing resilience dimensions (latitude, resistance and precariousness defined as barrier width and height and proximity to mainland, respectively) that, jointly, define the shape of the stability domain. The approach was applied to the Ria Formosa barrier island system (S. Portugal), using multi-decadal geomorphological data and gradually decreasing spatial discretisation, passing from individual barrier transects to sectors and to entire barriers. The joint evolution of two inland-migrating barriers (Cabanas Island and Cacela Peninsula) was used as an exemplar of adaptive capacity in barrier geomorphic change and, therefore, of resilient response to external pressures. Resilience pathways showed that the Ria Formosa barriers have been resilient over the studied timeframe, with a tendency for maintaining or increasing BDM structural complexity. In general, the stability domain tends to shift from low latitude and high resistance forms (narrow-deep basins of attraction) in the west part of the barrier chain, to higher latitudes and lower resistance ones (wide-shallow basins) towards the east. Precariousness peaks near the edges of the system (low lagoon width) and minimises towards the central part (most detached barriers). Scaling issues regarding smoothing of longshore variability and potential consequences on masking thresholds and critical dimensions are highlighted and discussed, along with the key role of the meaning of specified resilience (of what?) in the assessment. The methodology is a novel approach, easily transferable to different systems and spatiotemporal scales of analysis, representing a step forward in interpreting and assessing barrier island resilience.

https://doi. org/10.1016/j.catena.2020.104755

Guerra, L., Veiga-Pires, C., González-Regalado, M. L., Abad, M., Toscano, A., Muñoz, J. M., Ruiz, F., Rodríguez Vidal, J., Cáceres, L. M., Izquierdo, T., Carretero, M. I., Pozo, M., Monge, G., Tosquella, J., Prudencio, M. I., Dias, M. I., Marques, R., G

Guerra, L., Veiga-Pires, C., González-Regalado, M. L., Abad, M., Toscano, A., Muñoz, J. M., Ruiz, F., Rodríguez Vidal,
J., Cáceres, L. M., Izquierdo, T., Carretero, M. I., Pozo, M., Monge, G., Tosquella, J., Prudencio, M. I., Dias, M. I., Marques,
R., Gómez, P., Romero, V.

This paper studies the Late Holocene benthic foraminifera from a continuous core extracted in the Doñana National Park (SW Spain). In this core, the foraminiferal assemblages confirm the Late Holocene lagoon (historically so-called Lacus Ligustinus) during the Roman period, about 2000 years ago. The more open, deepest areas of this lagoon were dominated by Ammonia tepida and Elphidium spp., while Haynesina germanica was the most representative species of the shallow, more restricted zones. The vertical variations of these assemblages, together with associated sedimentological and macrofaunal changes, allow recognizing three high-energy events (HEE) between 500 BCE and 500 CE, which also left an extensive sedimentary record in nearby coastal areas: two tsunamis (HEE-1 and HEE-3) and a storminess period (HEE-2).

https://doi.org/10.5710/AMGH.08.05.2020.3336

Vousdoukas, M. I., Ranasinghe, R., Mentaschi, L., Plomaritis, T. A., Athanasiou, P., Luijendijk, A., Feyen, L. (2020). Sandy coastlines under threat of erosion. Nature Climate Change. Nature Research, 10, pp. 260–263. https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41558-020-

Vousdoukas, M. I., Ranasinghe, R., Mentaschi, L., Plomaritis, T. A., Athanasiou, P., Luijendijk, A., Feyen, L.

Sandy beaches occupy more than one-third of the global coastline1 and have high socioeconomic value related to recreation, tourism and ecosystem services2. Beaches are the interface between land and ocean, providing coastal protection from marine storms and cyclones3. However the presence of sandy beaches cannot be taken for granted, as they are under constant change, driven by meteorological4,5, geological6 and anthropogenic factors1,7. A substantial proportion of the world’s sandy coastline is already eroding1,7, a situation that could be exacerbated by climate change8,9. Here, we show that ambient trends in shoreline dynamics, combined with coastal recession driven by sea level rise, could result in the near extinction of almost half of the world’s sandy beaches by the end of the century. Moderate GHG emission mitigation could prevent 40% of shoreline retreat. Projected shoreline dynamics are dominated by sea level rise for the majority of sandy beaches, but in certain regions the erosive trend is counteracted by accretive ambient shoreline changes; for example, in the Amazon, East and Southeast Asia and the north tropical Pacific. A substantial proportion of the threatened sandy shorelines are in densely populated areas, underlining the need for the design and implementation of effective adaptive measures.

https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41558-020-0697-0

Abalansa, S., El Mahrad, B., Vondolia, G.K., Icely, J.D., Newton, A. (2020). The marine litter issue: a social-economic analysis. Sustainability, 12(20), 8677. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208677

Abalansa, S., El Mahrad, B., Vondolia, G.K., Icely, J.D., Newton, A

The issue of marine plastic litter pollution is multifaceted, cross-sectoral, and ongoing in the absence of appropriate management measures. This study analysed the issue of marine plastic litter pollution in the context of the Descriptor 10 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and Good Environmental Status of the oceans and seas. The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was used to assess the causes, effects, and management measures to changes in the marine environment resulting from marine plastics pollution. We noted that less than 10 peer-reviewed publications have applied the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model to the issue of marine plastics pollution. Some basic needs such as food security, movement of goods and services, and shelter are also some of the major drivers of marine plastic pollution. The use of plastics is linked to multiple economic sectors (fisheries, agriculture, transport, packaging, construction) and other human activities. A significant amount of the resulting pressures came from the economic sectors for packaging and construction. State changes occurred at the environmental (contamination and bioaccumulation), ecosystem (ingestion of plastics, ghost fishing) and ecosystem service levels (supply of sea food, salt and cultural benefits), with possible loss of jobs and income being some of the observed impacts on human welfare. Responses as management measures, which are tailored to meet each component of the DPSIR framework, were identified. These included policies, regulations, technological advancement and behavioural change. The research acknowledges the issue of marine plastics pollution as a global environmental problem and recommends a trans-disciplinary approach, involving all types of stakeholders. Future research and analysis applying the DPSIR framework will be useful to provide the information necessary for the effective, adaptive management of litter pollution by marine plastics.

https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208677

Mendes, I., Lobo, F.J., Hanebuth, T.J.J., López-Quirós, Á., Schönfeld, J., Lebreiro, S., Reguera, M.I., Antón, L., Ferreira, Ó. (2020). Temporal variability of flooding events of Guadiana River (Iberian Peninsula) during the middle to late Holocene: Imp

Mendes, I., Lobo, F.J., Hanebuth, T.J.J., López-Quirós, Á., Schönfeld, J., Lebreiro, S., Reguera, M.I., Antón, L., Ferreira, Ó

Sedimentological, geochemical and benthic foraminiferal proxies were used to interpret changes of depositional environments in a mud entrapment inside the Guadiana River paleo-valley, northern Gulf of Cadiz, to understand the temporal variability of fluvial flooding events and to detect patterns of latitudinal climatic variability in western Iberia.

The period between ca. 5800 and ca. 1250 cal yr BP was characterized by slowly accumulating coarse-grained sediments, high content of biogenic sand components, and high abundances of shallow-water benthic foraminiferal species. After ca. 1250 cal yr BP, the sedimentary environment was dominated by fine-grained sediments, with high abundances of opportunistic benthic foraminiferal species and successful colonizers, and high values of geochemical ratios indicative of enhanced terrigenous supply. Sedimentation rates increased drastically over the last ca. 500 years.

The genesis of these environments was mainly driven by the variable frequency of fluvial flooding events driven by the regional climate variability. Low terrigenous sediment input under dry conditions prevailed in the older sedimentary unit. Flood frequency and terrigenous sediment supply increased during the younger unit. The variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation at centennial scales highly influenced the sediment supply during the last ca. 500 years, with high terrigenous supply during negative NAO conditions. Our results corroborate an N-S gradient along the Atlantic Iberia during middle and late Holocene, with more humid conditions in the northwestern and drier conditions towards the southeast. The gradient weakened over the past ca. 500 years, with increased rainfalls and flood events during the Little Ice Age.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2020.109900

Silva, S., Cravo, A., Ferreira, C., Correia, C., Almeida, C. M. M. (2020). Biomarker Responses of the clams Ruditapes decussatus Exposed to a Complex Mixture of Environmental Stressors Under the Influence of an Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant. Environm

Silva, S., Cravo, A., Ferreira, C., Correia, C., Almeida, C. M. M.

To evaluate the potential impact of an urban wastewater‐treatment plant on Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, a sentinel species, the clam Ruditapes decussatus, was exposed along a gradient of the effluent's dispersal for 1 mo. Three exposure sites were selected to study the responses of 3 biomarkers: electron transport system, acetylcholinesterase, and lipid peroxidation. As complementary data, morphometric measurements, condition index, and lipid and protein content were considered together with in situ physicochemical characterization of the sites (temperature, salinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen). Electron transport system activity levels were between 35.7 and 50.5 nmol O2/min g protein, acetylcholinesterase activity levels ranged from 2.6 to 3.8 nmol/min g protein, and lipid peroxidation ranged from 174.7 to 246.4 nmol malondialdehyde/g protein. The exposure sites shaped the response not only of biomarkers but also of “health” parameters (protein, lipids, and condition index). Lipid peroxidation was the most responsive biomarker also associated with electron transport system, especially at the closest site to the urban wastewater‐treatment plant. Because of the presence of complex mixtures of contaminants in urban effluents, biomarker responses can provide valuable information in environmental assessment. However, it is vital to identify all biological and ecological factors induced by the natural life cycle of clams. Abiotic factors can mask or overlap the response of biomarkers and should be considered in a multibiomarker approach. 

https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.4895

Rocha, H.V., Mendes, M., Pereira, Z., Rodrigues, C., Fernandes, P., Lopes, G., Sant’Anna, L.G., Tassinari, C.C.G., Lemos de Sousa, M. J. (2020). New palynostratigraphic data of the Irati (Assistência Member) and the Corumbataí formations, Paraná Basin

Rocha, H.V., Mendes, M., Pereira, Z., Rodrigues, C., Fernandes, P., Lopes, G., Sant’Anna, L.G., Tassinari, C.C.G., Lemos de Sousa, M. J.

This research presents the palynostratigraphy of organic-rich shales from the Irati and the Corumbataí formations, Paraná Basin (PB), Southeastern Brazil, as part of an unconventional hydrocarbon source rock and CO2 reservoir assessment study. Thirty-four samples from the Corumbataí Formation and the Assistência Member of the Irati Formation were collected in the states of Goiás (northern border of the PB), São Paulo and Paraná (eastern and southern border of the PB, respectively). The acquired data allowed to establish a comprehensive palynostratigraphic study across the basin where a total of 18 pollen genera (34 pollen species), seven spore genera, four microplankton genera (1 species), and Chlorophyceae algae species where identified. The palynostratigraphic analysis also reveals a clear dominance of bisaccate pollen grains such as Corisaccites alutas, Lueckisporites virkkiae, and Weylandites lucifer. The Lueckisporites virkkiae zone was identified in the upper part of the Irati Formation (Assistência Member) and the lowermost part of the Corumbataí Formation, indicating a Kungurian to Roadian age for this part of the succession. Differences in the Guttulapollenites hannonicus and Tornopollenites toreutos biostratigraphic ranges, recovered in the Corumbataí Formation, suggest an earlier development of these species in the Paraná Basin during the middle Permian. Therefore, to evaluate the differences in the first occurrences of key species within the Paraná Basin, a close palynostratigraphic correlation between the main Guadalupian-Lopingian South American Gondwana basins is tentatively established.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2020.102631

Mello, L. C., Fonseca, T. G., Abessa, D. (2020). Ecotoxicological assessment of chemotherapeutic agents using toxicity tests with embryos of Mellita quinquiesperforata. Marine Pollution Bulletin 159: 111493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. marpolbul.2020.1114

Mello, L. C., Fonseca, T. G., Abessa, D. 

The consumption of anticancer agents has increased in the recent decades, and these substances may be present in sewage. Consequently, they may reach the environment when sanitation infrastructure is ineffective. This study evaluated the toxicity of three anticancer agents—Tamoxifen (TAM), Cisplatin (CisPt), and Cyclophosphamide (CP)—on the development of embryos of the sand-dollar Mellita quinquiesperforata. Adult individuals were collected in sandy beaches, and gametes were obtained. Freshly-fertilized eggs were exposed to increasing sets of concentrations of each compound, and the effective concentrations needed to cause a 50% effect in the organisms (EC50) were calculated. The three compounds were toxic, and their EC50 values were 16.78 ± 2.42 ng·L−1 (TAM), 27.20 ± 38.26 ng·L−1 (CisPt), and 101.82 ± 70.96 ng·L−1 (CP). There is no information on the environmental levels of these compounds in Brazil, but as they were already detected in ng·L−1 levels worldwide, it can be expected that these substances pose environmental risks to the marine biota.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j. marpolbul.2020.111493

Torregroza Espinosa, A.C., Restrepo, J.C., Escobar, J.H., Brenner, M., Newton, A. (2020a). Nutrient Input and Net Ecosystem Productivity in the Mouth of the Magdalena River, Colombia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 243, 106899 https://doi.org/10.

Torregroza Espinosa, A.C., Restrepo, J.C., Escobar, J.H., Brenner, M., Newton, A.

Nutrient inputs and biogeochemical cycles in estuaries are strongly influenced by river discharge and suspended particulate matter (SPM). We evaluated temporal differences in nutrient bioavailability and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and analyzed the effect of SPM on nutrient availability and estuary NEP in the mouth of the Magdalena River, Colombia. In this study, we used the stratified Muddy LOICZ model. Calculated water residence times in the estuary were low (~0.9–2.1 days), as were proportions of dissolved nitrogen (DIN) and phosphorus (DIP) forms (~10–30%) in the total nutrient pool. Dissolved nutrient proportions displayed differences between seasons (transition period [June 2018] and wet [November 2018]), and between the upper and lower, density-stratified water layers. Nutrient adsorption and desorption, associated with SPM in the estuary, determined bioavailable nutrient concentrations. When SPM was incorporated in the Muddy LOICZ model, the output indicated that NEP in the estuary was positive, i.e. gross primary productivity exceeded community respiration (autotrophic), and that there was net retention of nitrogen and phosphorus in the estuary. Primary producers in the autotrophic ecosystem fix sufficient carbon to supply higher trophic levels. Prevalence of fine sediment with high organic matter (OM) content in the Magdalena River, along with turbulence that results in vertical water column mixing, suggest conditions conducive to flocculation. This investigation highlights the importance of the Magdalena River mouth in the transport and processing of sediments and nutrients being discharged to the Caribbean Sea.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2020.106899

Guerra, L., González-Regalado Montero, M. L., Toscano Grande, A., Rodríguez Vidal, J. (2020c). El contraste micropaleontológico de la Historia: el Lacus Ligustinus romano. Estudios Geológicos 76 (2), 131. https://doi.org/10.3989/ egeol.43851.585

Guerra, L., González-Regalado Montero, M. L., Toscano Grande, A., Rodríguez Vidal, J. 

Durante el periodo romano (siglo III a.C.-siglo V d.C.), las zonas próximas a la actual desembocadura del río Guadalquivir estaban ocupadas por una laguna interior con conexión marina, a partir de la interpretación paleoambiental de las asociaciones de foraminíferos bentónicos obtenidos en un sondeo situado en el Parque Nacional de Doñana. Sus zonas internas estaban ocupadas por llanuras mareales arcillosas, que sufrieron los efectos de una tormenta hacia finales del siglo I d.C. La comparación con los ostrácodos del mismo sondeo confirma esta recons­trucción y los datos paleogeográficos aportados por diversos cronistas, si bien estos microcrustáceos detectan de manera más precisa los cambios paleoambientales en estos medios litorales.

https://doi.org/10.3989/ egeol.43851.585

O'Donovan, S., Mestre, N.C., Abel, S., Fonseca, T.G., Carteny, C.C., Willems, T., Prinsen, E., Cormier, B., Keiter, S.H. Bebianno, M.J. (2020). Effects of the UV filter, oxybenzone, adsorbed to microplastics in the clam Scrobicularia plana.Science of Th

O'Donovan, S., Mestre, N.C., Abel, S., Fonseca, T.G., Carteny, C.C., Willems, T., Prinsen, E., Cormier, B., Keiter, S.H. Bebianno, M.J

Microplastics (MPs) lipophilic nature and widespread distribution raises concerns due to their increasing presence in the marine environment and their ability to adsorb organic contaminants, as being potential vehicles for transport and potential source of accumulation of organic contaminants by marine organisms. The organic UV-filter, oxybenzone (BP-3) is a constituent of sunscreens and personal care products, entering the marine environment either by direct contact with swimmers or by wastewater effluents. In this study the ecotoxicological effects of exposure to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) microplastics with and without adsorbed BP-3 were investigated in the peppery furrow shell clam, Scrobicularia plana. LDPE microplastics with a size range of 11–13 μm were previously contaminated with an environmentally relevant concentration of BP-3 (82 ng g−1). S. plana individuals were exposed to a concentration of 1 mg L−1 of microplastics with and without BP-3 adsorbed in a water-sediment exposure system for 14 days. Clams were sampled at the beginning of the experiment and after 3, 7, and 14 days of exposure. Multiple biomarkers were analysed to investigate the effect of exposure in different clam tissues, gills, digestive gland, and haemolymph. Antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferases) enzyme activities, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation), genotoxicity (single and double strand DNA breaks), and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity) were assessed along with two biomarker indexes to assess the overall health status. Results indicate that after 7 days of exposure MPs with adsorbed BP-3 induced oxidative stress and damage, when compared to exposure to virgin MPs and control treatments. Neurotoxic effects were also noted in MPs with adsorbed BP-3 after 14 days exposure, while some evidence points to increased genotoxicity with exposure time. Overall results indicate that gills were more affected by exposure to microplastics than digestive gland and that biomarkers alterations are apparently more related to the toxicity of BP-3 adsorbed than virgin MPs alone.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139102

Correia, C., Torres, A. F., Rosa, A., Cravo, A., Jacob, J, Júnior, L., Garel, E. (2020). Export of dissolved and suspended matter from the main estuaries in south Portugal during winter conditions. Marine Chemistry, 224, 1-15, https://doi. org/10.1016/j.

Correia, C., Torres, A. F., Rosa, A., Cravo, A., Jacob, J., Júnior, L., Garel, E. 

Estuaries are essential drivers of primary productivity in coastal waters through the export of dissolved and suspended material. This study aims at quantifying this fertilization process at the two main estuaries in South Portugal, where typical low river discharge conditions occur in winter due to strong flow regulation by upstream dams and seldom-local rain events. Data were collected across the channel of the lower Arade (10/01/2018) and Guadiana (04/02/2019) estuaries during a semi-diurnal tidal cycle with intermediate tidal ranges (1.5 m and 2.2 m, respectively). Current velocity records were completed with hourly water quality measurements (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, chlorophyll a and nutrients) for determination of the along channel fluxes and residual mass transport of dissolved and suspended matter across the channel sections. The results show that the two estuaries were characterized by distinct water circulation patterns and tidal properties (e.g., standing wave at the Arade, mixed wave at the Guadiana). The concentration of dissolved and particulate matter displayed a general similar anti-phase pattern of variations with tidal height at both sites. The corresponding fluxes were generally strongest during the ebb phase. Thus, the residual mass transport was seaward, indicating that both estuaries contribute to fertilize adjacent coastal waters by exporting nutrients (order of kg), chlorophyll a (order of kg) and suspended solids (up to tons). Moreover, transport differences at both estuaries reflect specific discharge flow and environmental conditions as well as contamination sources close to the study areas. In particular, the signatures of a discharge event from a water treatment plant at the Arade and of coastal upwelling at the Guadiana were identified.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2020.103827

Boutoub, O., El-Guendouz, S., Estevinho, L.M., Paula, V., Aazza, S., Ghadraoui, L., Rodrigues, B., Raposo, S., Carlier, J, Costa, M.C., Miguel, M.G. (2020). Antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitory potential of Euphorbia resinifera and E. officinarum

Boutoub, O., El-Guendouz, S., Estevinho, L.M., Paula, V., Aazza, S., Ghadraoui, L., Rodrigues, B., Raposo, S., Carlier,
J, Costa, M.C., Miguel, M.G

Natural products may be applied in a wide range of domains, from agriculture to food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the antioxidant properties and the capacity to inhibit some enzymatic activities of Euphorbia resinifera and Euphorbia officinarum aqueous extracts and honeys were assessed. The physicochemical characteristics were also evaluated. Higher amounts of iron, copper and aluminium were detected in E. officinarum honey, which may indicate environmental pollution around the beehives or inadequate storage of honey samples. This honey sample showed higher amounts of total phenols and better capacity for scavenging superoxide anion free radicals and DPPH free radicals as compared with E. resinifera honey, but poorer capacity for inhibiting lipoxygenase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase. The ratio plant mass:solvent volume (1:100) and extraction time (1 - 2 h) were associated with higher total phenols and better antioxidant activities and lipoxygenase, acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, regardless of the plant species. The aqueous extracts had systematically higher in vitro activities than the respective honey samples.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10489-6

Kümmerer, V., Drago, T., Veiga-Pires, C., Silva, P.F., Magalhães, V., Mena, A., Lopes, A., Rodrigues, A.I., Schmidt, S., Terrinha, P., Baptista, M.A. (2020). Exploring offshore sediment evidence of the 1755 ce tsunami (Faro, portugal): Implications for

Kümmerer, V., Drago, T., Veiga-Pires, C., Silva, P.F., Magalhães, V., Mena, A., Lopes, A., Rodrigues, A.I., Schmidt, S., Terrinha, P., Baptista, M.A.

Outer shelf sedimentary records are promising for determining the recurrence intervals of tsunamis. However, compared to onshore deposits, offshore deposits are more difficult to access, and so far, studies of outer shelf tsunami deposits are scarce. Here, an example of studying these deposits is presented to infer implications for tsunami-related signatures in similar environments and potentially contribute to pre-historic tsunami event detections. A multidisciplinary approach was performed to detect the sedimentary imprints left by the 1755 CE tsunami in two cores, located in the southern Portuguese continental shelf at water depths of 58 and 91 m. Age models based on 14C and 210Pbxs allowed a probable correspondence with the 1755 CE tsunami event. A multi-proxy approach, including sand composition, grain-size, inorganic geochemistry, magnetic susceptibility, and microtextural features on quartz grain surfaces, yielded evidence for a tsunami depositional signature, although only a subtle terrestrial signal is present. A low contribution of terrestrial material to outer shelf tsunami deposits calls for methodologies that reveal sedimentary structures linked to tsunami event hydrodynamics. Finally, a change in general sedimentation after the tsunami event might have influenced the signature of the 1755 CE tsunami in the outer shelf environment.

https://doi.org/10.3390/min10090731

Malone, T., Newton, A. (2020). The Globalization of Coastal Eutrophication: Causes and Consequences. Frontiers in Marine Science, 7, 670, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.00670

 Malone, T., Newton, A. 

Coastal eutrophication caused by anthropogenic nutrient inputs is one of the greatest threats to the health of coastal estuarine and marine ecosystems worldwide. Globally, ∼24% of the anthropogenic N released in coastal watersheds is estimated to reach coastal ecosystems. Seven contrasting coastal ecosystems subject to a range of riverine inputs of freshwater and nutrients are compared to better understand and manage this threat. The following are addressed: (i) impacts of anthropogenic nutrient inputs on ecosystem services; (ii) how ecosystem traits minimize or amplify these impacts; (iii) synergies among pressures (nutrient enrichment, over fishing, coastal development, and climate-driven pressures in particular); and (iv) management of nutrient inputs to coastal ecosystems. This comparative analysis shows that “trophic status,” when defined in terms of the level of primary production, is not useful for relating anthropogenic nutrient loading to impacts. Ranked in terms of the impact of cultural eutrophication, Chesapeake Bay ranks number one followed by the Baltic Sea, Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Gulf of Mexico, Santa Barbara Channel, East China Sea, and the Great Barrier Reef. The impacts of increases in anthropogenic nutrient loading (e.g., development of “dead zones,” loss of biologically engineered habitats, and toxic phytoplankton events) are, and will continue to be, exacerbated by synergies with other pressures, including over fishing, coastal development and climate-driven increases in sea surface temperature, acidification and rainfall. With respect to management, reductions in point source inputs from sewage treatment plants are increasingly successful. However, controlling inputs from diffuse sources remains a challenging problem. The conclusion from this analysis is that the severity of coastal eutrophication will likely continue to increase in the absence of effectively enforced, ecosystem-based management of both point and diffuse sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. This requires sustained, integrated research and monitoring, as well as repeated assessments of nutrient loading and impacts. These must be informed and guided by ongoing collaborations among scientists, politicians, managers and the public.

https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.00670

Smith, C. R., Tunnicliffe, V., Colaço, A., Drazen, J.C., Gollner, S., Levin, L.A., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Molodtsova, T., Morato, T., Sweetman, A.K., Washburn, T., Amon, D.J. (2020a). Deep-sea misconceptions cause underestimation of seabed-mining i

Smith, C. R., Tunnicliffe, V., Colaço, A., Drazen, J.C., Gollner, S., Levin, L.A., Mestre, N.C., Metaxas, A., Molodtsova, T., Morato, T., Sweetman, A.K., Washburn, T., Amon, D.J.

Scientific misconceptions are likely leading to miscalculations of the environmental impacts of deepseabed mining. These result from underestimating mining footprints relative to habitats targeted and
poor understanding of the sensitivity, biodiversity, and dynamics of deep-sea ecosystems. Addressing these misconceptions and knowledge gaps is needed for effective management of deep-seabed mining.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2020.07.002

Newton, A., Icely, J., Cristina, S., Perillo, Gerardo M.E., Turner, R. E., Ashan, D., Cragg, S., Luo, Y., Tu, C., Li, Y., Zhang, H., Ramesh, R., Forbes, D. L., Solidoro, C., Béjaoui, B., Gao, S., Pastres, R., Kelsey, H., Taillie, D., Nhan, N., Brito, A.

Newton, A., Icely, J., Cristina, S., Perillo, Gerardo M.E., Turner, R. E., Ashan, D., Cragg, S., Luo, Y., Tu, C., Li, Y., Zhang, H., Ramesh, R., Forbes, D. L., Solidoro, C., Béjaoui, B., Gao, S., Pastres, R., Kelsey, H., Taillie, D., Nhan, N., Brito, A. C., de Lima, R., Kuenzer, C.

Coastal wetlands, such as saltmarshes and mangroves that fringe transitional waters, deliver important ecosystem services that support human development. Coastal wetlands are complex social-ecological systems that occur at all latitudes, from polar regions to the tropics. This overview covers wetlands in five continents. The wetlands are of varying size, catchment size, human population and stages of economic development. Economic sectors and activities in and around the coastal wetlands and their catchments exert multiple, direct pressures. These pressures affect the state of the wetland environment, ecology and valuable ecosystem services. All the coastal wetlands were found to be affected in some ways, irrespective of the conservation status. The main economic sectors were agriculture, animal rearing including aquaculture, fisheries, tourism, urbanization, shipping, industrial development and mining. Specific human activities include land reclamation, damming, draining and water extraction, construction of ponds for aquaculture and salt extraction, construction of ports and marinas, dredging, discharge of effluents from urban and industrial areas and logging, in the case of mangroves, subsistence hunting and oil and gas extraction. The main pressures were loss of wetland habitat, changes in connectivity affecting hydrology and sedimentology, as well as contamination and pollution. These pressures lead to changes in environmental state, such as erosion, subsidence and hypoxia that threaten the sustainability of the wetlands. There are also changes in the state of the ecology, such as loss of saltmarsh plants and seagrasses, and mangrove trees, in tropical wetlands. Changes in the structure and function of the wetland ecosystems affect ecosystem services that are often underestimated. The loss of ecosystem services impacts human welfare as well as the regulation of climate change by coastal wetlands. These cumulative impacts and multi-stressors are further aggravated by indirect pressures, such as sea-level rise.

https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2020.00144

Matias, A., Carrasco, A.R., Ramos, A., Borges, R. (2020). Engaging children in geosciences through storytelling and creative dance. Geoscience Communication, 3, 167-177. https://doi.org/10.5194/gc-3-167-2020

Matias, A., Carrasco, A.R., Ramos, A., Borges, R.

Natural sciences have traditionally been disseminated in outreach activities as formal, one-way presentations. Nevertheless, innovative strategies are being increasingly developed using arts, gaming, and sketching, amongst others. This work aimed at testing an alternative and innovative way to engage non-expert audiences in ocean and coastal geology through a combination of scientific concept explanations and creative dancing. An informal education activity focusing on ocean dynamics was designed for 10-year-old students. It combines coastal science concepts (wind, waves, currents, and sand), storytelling techniques (narrative arc), and creative dance techniques (movement, imaginative play, and sensory engagement). A sequence of six exercises was proposed, starting with the generation of offshore ocean waves and ending with sediment transport on the beach during storm/fair-weather conditions. Scientific concepts were then translated into structured creative movements, within imaginary scenarios, and accompanied by sounds or music. The activity was performed six times with a total of 112 students. It was an inclusive activity given that all students in the class participated, including children with several mild types of cognitive and neurological impairment. The science and art activity aroused emotions of enjoyment and pleasure and allowed for effective communication between scientists and school community. Moreover, the results provide evidence of the activity's effectiveness in engaging children and developing their willingness to further participate in similar activities.

https://doi.org/10.5194/gc-3-167-2020

Mills, L., Janeiro, J., Neves, A., Martins, F. (2020). The Impact of Sea Level Rise in the Guadiana Estuary. Journal of Computational Science, 44, 101169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocs.2020.101169

Mills, L., Janeiro, J., Neves, A., Martins, F.

Understanding the impact of sea level rise on coastal areas is crucial as a large percentage of the population live on the coast. This study uses computational tools to examine how two major consequences of sea level rise: salt intrusion and an increase in water volume affect the hydrodynamics and flooding areas of a major estuary in the Iberian Peninsula. A 2D numerical model created with the software MOHID was used to simulate the Guadiana Estuary in different scenarios of sea level rise combined with different freshwater flow rates considering varying tidal amplitudes. An increase in salinity was found in response to an increase in mean sea level in both high and low freshwater flow rates at all areas around the estuary. An increase in flooding areas around the estuary was also positively correlated with an increase in mean sea level.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocs.2020.101169

El Mahrad, B., Newton, A., Icely, J. D., Kacimi, I., Abalansa, S., Snoussi, M. (2020a). Contribution of Remote Sensing Technologies to Holistic Coastal and Marine Environmental Management Framework: Best Practices and Future Potential. Remote Sensing 2

El Mahrad, B., Newton, A., Icely, J. D., Kacimi, I., Abalansa, S., Snoussi, M.

Coastal and marine management require the evaluation of multiple environmental threats and issues. However, there are gaps in the necessary data and poor access or dissemination of existing data in many countries around the world. This research identifies how remote sensing can contribute to filling these gaps so that environmental agencies, such as the United Nations Environmental Programme, European Environmental Agency, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, can better implement environmental directives in a cost-effective manner. Remote sensing (RS) techniques generally allow for uniform data collection, with common acquisition and reporting methods, across large areas. Furthermore, these datasets are sometimes open-source, mainly when governments finance satellite missions. Some of these data can be used in holistic, coastal and marine environmental management frameworks, such as the DAPSI(W)R(M) framework (Drivers–Activities–Pressures–State changes–Impacts (on Welfare)–Responses (as Measures), an updated version of Drivers–Pressures–State–Impact–Responses. The framework is a useful and holistic problem-structuring framework that can be used to assess the causes, consequences, and responses to change in the marine environment. Six broad classifications of remote data collection technologies are reviewed for their potential contribution to integrated marine management, including Satellite-based Remote Sensing, Aerial Remote Sensing, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Unmanned Surface Vehicles, Unmanned Underwater Vehicles, and Static Sensors. A significant outcome of this study is practical inputs into each component of the DAPSI(W)R(M) framework. The RS applications are not expected to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide insight into the current use of the framework as a foundation for developing further holistic resource technologies for management strategies in the future. A significant outcome of this research will deliver practical insights for integrated coastal and marine management and demonstrate the usefulness of RS to support the implementation of environmental goals, descriptors, targets, and policies, such as the Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Ocean Health Index, and United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Additionally, the opportunities and challenges of these technologies are discussed.

10.3390/rs12142313

Konstantinou, Z.I., Kombiadou, K. (2020). Rethinking suspended mussel-farming modelling: Combining hydrodynamic and bio-economic models to support integrated aquaculture management. Aquaculture, 523, 735179 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735

Konstantinou, Z.I., Kombiadou, K. 

Suspended mussel-farming using cultivation socks, either in long-line or traditional pole cultivation structures, is a widely spread activity around the world. The sustainability and efficiency of the activity depends on a number of interrelated parameters, as is the natural availability of food, the physical and ecological characteristics of the coastal or marine area and the farmers' choices. The natural parameter which influences the activity the most and which can be a major controlling parameter for integrated management is adequate and uninhibited water circulation. The individual characteristics of the farming structures, as well as their spatial placing, can influence circulation, thus affecting food distribution, growth rates, productivity and profits of the mussel-farming activity. To assess this influence in an integrated manner, it is necessary to work in different levels of analysis and transdisciplinary domains, utilising multiple simulation models and taking into consideration the particular characteristics of the activity in different areas. This paper aims to demonstrate such an integrated management approach through: i) the high resolution assessment of the effect of farming structures on circulation, using a novel parameterisation of the cultivation socks as porous media; ii) the calibration of a traditional drag coefficient based on the results of the high resolution experiments, allowing a lower resolution analysis, necessary to implement assessments in cultivation area level and iii) the analysis and evaluation of alternative spatial planning configurations, both regarding hydrodynamics and bio-economic characteristics of the mussel-farming activity. The case study, used to demonstrate the methodology, was Thermaikos Gulf, in Northern Greece, the area producing more than 80% of the national mussel production and which has been facing critical management problems for more than 20 years. The integrated modelling approach resulted in the successful use of porosity for high resolution modelling of suspended mussel-farming in socks and in the multi-level understanding of how the operational characteristics of the activity can influence its sustainability. Additionally, the results shed light in some of the most important problems of the Greek mussel-farming sector. Overall the approach demonstrates that integrated, social-ecological management of productive activities, like aquaculture, require the combination of multiple and transdisciplinary levels of analysis, the development of tailor-made modelling approaches and some outside-the-box thinking, to overcome difficulties related to the availability of information.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735179

Cravo, A., Rosa, A., Jacob, J., Correia, C. (2020). Dissolved oxygen dynamics in Ria Formosa lagoon - a real time monitoring station observatory. Marine Chemistry, 223, 1-14, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2020.103806

Cravo, A., Rosa, A., Jacob, J., Correia, C.

Dissolved oxygen (DO) is considered one of the most important environmental variables of water quality. This work aimed to provide, for the first time, insights regarding DO dynamics on a representative site of the productive Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, south Europe, using a real time monitoring station observatory (acquiring data every 15 min) deployed for a period of two and a half years. This comprehensive data set represents an added value contributing to a better understanding of the DO variability throughout analyzing semidiurnal, daily, fortnightly tidal cycles (spring tide vs. neap tide), seasonal and interannual periods. This observational station was able to capture distinct temporal signatures, including episodic upwelling and meteorological events advancing the knowledge about the functioning of Ria Formosa. DO was highly variable presenting an evident seasonal distribution with the maximum concentration in spring and the minimum in summer night periods. Critical values <5 mg/L were recorded only in 3% of the global data set with negligible hypoxia events, showing infrequent DO stressful conditions in the study area. In addition, the disclosure of its diel dynamics over long periods, provided by this data set, allows to determine the impact of biological activity upon the DO variability and related ecosystem metabolism behavior (autotrophic vs. heterotrophic), through the metric estimation of Net Ecosystem Metabolism (NEM). NEM in the study area revealed to be slightly heterotrophic along one year of observation, reflecting the median percentage of DO saturation (93%). The acquired data set is highly valuable and can contribute to Ria Formosa management and protection, which is imperative for building knowledge-based societies.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2020.103806

de Alencar, P.N.M., Le Tissier, M., Paterson, S.K., Newton, A. (2020). Circles of Coastal Sustainability: A Framework for Coastal Management. Sustainability 2020, 12, 4 886; doi:10.3390/su12124886

Natália M. P. de Alencar, Martin Le Tissier, Shona K. Paterson, Alice Newton 

The coastal zone is a space where many social, economic, and political activities intersect with natural processes. In this paper, we present an adaptation of the method of ‘Circles of Sustainability’, used to provide a visual assessment of indicators that define sustainability profiles for cities. It is used as a basis for a ‘Circles of Coastal Sustainability’ (CCS) framework that can be used at multiple spatial scales to assess indicators of critical processes that facilitate/constrain sustainability of the world’s coastal zones. The development of such a framework can support management by identifying key features that influence environmental sustainability and human well-being. CCS presents a holistic assessment of four interdependent boundary domains: Environment and Ecology, Social and Cultural, Economics, and Governance and Policy. This approach improves its utility and usability for decision-makers and researchers. CCS adds to existing assessment frameworks that are often focused on particular themes and/or domains that confine their utility to the context of sustainable development and the UN Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, which demand an inherently holistic and integrated evaluation. CCS is a holistic framework designed to assess the boundaries to sustainability for socio-ecological systems at multiple scales for the world’s coasts.

 https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124886

Borja, A., Andersen, J. H., Arvanitidis, C. D., Basset, A., Buhl-Mortensen, L., Carvalho, S., Dafforn, K., Devlin, M.J., EscobarBriones, E.G., Grenz, C., Harder, T., Katsanevakis, S., Liu, D., Metaxas, A., Morán, X.A.G., Newton, A., Piroddi C., Pochon X

Borja, A., Andersen, J. H., Arvanitidis, C. D., Basset, A., Buhl-Mortensen, L., Carvalho, S., Dafforn, K., Devlin, M.J., Escobar-Briones, E.G., Grenz, C., Harder, T., Katsanevakis, S., Liu, D., Metaxas, A., Morán, X.A.G., Newton, A., Piroddi C., Pochon X., Queiros A.M., Snelgrove P., Solidoro C., John M.A.S, Teixeira H.

Frontiers in Marine Science launched the Marine Ecosystems Ecology (FMARS-MEE) section in 2014, with a paper that identified eight grand challenges for the discipline (Borja, 2014). Since then, this section has published a total of 370 papers, including 336 addressing aspects of those challenges. As editors of the journal, with a wide range of marine ecology expertise, we felt it was timely to evaluate research advances related to those challenges; and to update the scope of the section to reflect the grand challenges we envision for the next 10 years. This output will match with the United Nations (UN) Decade on Oceans Science for Sustainable Development (DOSSD; Claudet et al., 2020), UN Decade of Ecosystems Restoration (DER; Young and Schwartz, 2019), and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs; Visbeck et al., 2014).

First, we analyzed each published paper and assigned their topic to a maximum of two out of the eight challenges (all information available in Supplementary Table 1). We then extracted the 3–5 most cited papers within each challenge using two criteria: the total number of citations during this 6-year period, and the annual citation rate (i.e., the mean annual number of citations since publication). We then collated the topics covered by this reduced list of papers (Table 1) and summarized the outcomes for each topic.
Not surprisingly, 50.5% of the papers dealt broadly with the role of marine biodiversity in maintaining ecosystem function, since they are related to the core of the journal section. They are followed by papers addressing relationships between human pressures and marine ecosystems (19.5%), and ecosystem modeling (11.6%). Just fewer than 10% of the papers were unrelated to any of the challenges defined by Borja (2014) (Table 1). Papers related to the assessment of ocean health had the highest impact, with a relatively high number of citations, despite the low number of papers published on the topic (Figure 1). In fact, of the top papers assigned to each challenge, those assessing ocean health received the highest annual mean number of citations, followed by papers on understanding relationships between human pressures and ecosystems, and those dealing with understanding the role of biodiversity in maintaining ecosystems functionality (Table 1).
The topics of the publications spanned all ecosystem components, from microbes to mammals; habitats from pelagic to benthic; many individual and multiple human pressures and natural stressors affecting species, their populations, communities and habitats; methodologies for monitoring, modeling, and assessment; conservation, protection, restoration, and recovery of marine ecosystems; global change effects; and different management issues (Table 1). Some of the papers that did not focus on the grand challenges dealt with a special Research Topic, for example, ocean literacy (Borja et al., 2020a).

https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.00362

. Ferreira, A., Sá, C., Silva, N., Beltrán, C., Dias, A. M., Brito, A. C. (2020). Phytoplankton response to nutrient pulses in an upwelling system assessed through a microcosm experiment (Algarrobo Bay, Chile). Ocean and Coastal Management, 190. https:/

Ferreira, A., Sá, C., Silva, N., Beltrán, C., Dias, A. M., Brito, A. C. 

Nutrient enrichment in coastal areas can lead to severe disturbances in marine ecosystems with implications on ecosystem functioning. The primary goal of this study was to understand the response of phytoplankton, from a region with intense upwelling events, to pulsed nutrient enrichments. A microcosm experiment using natural assemblages was conducted, following the addition of inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and considering two different nutrient limitation conditions (N:P<16 and N:P>16). Laboratory work included the analysis of nutrients, as well as phytoplankton cell abundances. A fast response to the pulsed nutrient enrichments were observed in both treatments as biomass increased. Although higher biomass values were found under higher N concentrations, the community's composition was similar in both treatments. Centric diatoms, particularly Chaetoceros spp., strengthened their dominance, suggesting that, under these conditions, these may have physiological advantages that promote their growth over other groups. Throughout the experiment, phytoflagellates and pennate diatoms were common, while dinoflagellates were scarce. This study contributes to understanding how phytoplankton communities' growth and composition relate to nutrient pulses. These results provide relevant data for environmental quality assessment and management of marine environments.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105167

Dinis, P. A., Carvalho, J., Callapez, P. M., Mendes, M. M., Santos, V. F., Fernandes, P. (2020). Composition of Lower Cretaceous mudstones of the Algarve Basin and implications for Iberian palaeoclimates. Cretaceous Research, 110. https://doi.org/10.101

Dinis, P. A., Carvalho, J., Callapez, P. M., Mendes, M. M., Santos, V. F., Fernandes, P.

Several compositional features of mudstones are controlled by climate-driven weathering and have been used to approximate palaeoclimatic conditions. Mudstone composition, however, is also influenced by the geology of the source areas and diverse depositional and post-depositional processes. The present geochemical and mineralogical study of the Lower Cretaceous (upper Hauterivian to Aptian) of the Algarve Basin (Southern Portugal) was performed to investigate the main factors that control mudstone composition and extract possible climatic signals. Clay mineralogy partially reflects diverse contributions of felsic vs. mafic and recycled materials, and the geochemical weathering proxies applied to the detrital component of mudstones are differently affected by provenance and hydraulic fractionation. Despite these facts, a wide set of compositional data allows some robust climatic interpretations. Apart from the early Aptian (Burgau Formation), when climate was probably wetter, hot and dry conditions prevailed in south Iberia during the investigated interval, with minimum humidity during the late Hauterivian–early Barremian (Salema Formation). Independent sedimentological and palaeontogical data support these interpretations. A comparison with compositional results for the Lusitanian Basin reveals substantially drier climates in southern than central and northern Iberia. Interpreted patterns of climatic evolution can be linked to shifts in air circulation from the sub-tropical high-pressure belt.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2020.104404

Kumar, M., Boski, T., González-Vila, F. J., Jiménez-Morillo, N. T., González-Pérez, J. A. (2020a). Characteristics of organic matter sources from Guadiana Estuary salt marsh sediments (SW Iberian Peninsula). Continental Shelf Research, 197. https://doi.

Kumar, M., Boski, T., González-Vila, F. J., Jiménez-Morillo, N. T., González-Pérez, J. A.

Estuaries are dynamic interfaces between land, rivers and the ocean that play major roles in the global carbon cycle. These coastal wetlands store huge amounts of organic carbon (OC), commonly known as “blue carbon” and excellent places to study C cycling. The Guadiana river estuary is among the most important tidal salt marshes in the South - Iberian coastal margin. Here, a detailed organic geochemical study is described that includes the identification of sedimentary OM composition at a molecular and isotopic level. Total organic carbon content (TOC) of core sediments ranged from 0.39 to 2.23% and stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) also showed a wide range between −22.4 and −27.0‰. A13C depletion trend observed from the surface to bottom in the core sediments profiles, reflects loss of labile biogenic 13C enriched compounds i.e. polysaccharides and a selective preservation of more depleted compounds with depth i.e. lignin and lipids in the core sediments. Series of n-alkanes were found in the range from C10 to C31. Carbon preference index ratio (CPI) calculated for long-chain n-alkanes (C24–C31) that ranged between 1.17 and 1.94 reflecting diverse OM inputs to the sediments. A study of the lignin-derived phenolic composition pointed to a recalcitrant OM derived from both gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Moreover, high abundance of vinyl phenol and vinyl guaiacol points to a dominant contribution of lignins from grasses and aquatic macrophytes to the sediments. A well-resolved series of long-chain linear alkyl benzenes (LABs from C4 to C22) were recorded in all core sediment samples indicating direct discharge of untreated domestic and/or industrial effluents to the estuary. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with more than 3 rings reflects the pyrogenic origin of a portion of the sedimentary OM. This study highlights the importance of different OM sources to the lower Guadiana estuarine sediments and contributes to a better knowledge about its origin, dynamics and fate.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2020.104076

Cabezas-Rabadán, C., Pardo-Pascual, J.E, Palomar-Vázquez, J., Ferreira, Ó., Costas, S. (2020). Satellite Derived Shorelines at an Exposed Meso-tidal Beach. Journal of Coastal Research, SI95, 1027–1031. DOI: 10.2112/SI95-200.1

Cabezas-Rabadán, C., Pardo-Pascual, J.E, Palomar-Vázquez, J., Ferreira, Ó., Costas, S. 

Shoreline position data offer extremely valuable information for understanding coastal dynamism and beach changes. This research applies SHOREX system for defining the shoreline position from free mid-resolution Landsat-8 (L8) and Sentinel-2 (S2) satellite imagery. This system allows an automatic definition of Satellite Derived Shorelines (SDS) over large regions and periods. Accuracy and utility of the resulting SDS have been previously assessed with positive results at low energy, microtidal, Mediterranean beaches. This work assesses SDS extracted using SHOREX at a mesotidal and moderate to highly (during storms) energetic environment, namely at Faro Beach, a barrier beach located in Ria Formosa (Algarve, South Portugal). Accuracy was defined for 14 SDS derived from S2 and 10 from L8 by measuring the differences in position with respect to the shoreline inferred from profiles obtained on close dates (or simultaneously) to imagery acquisition. For non-simultaneous datasets, the water level was estimated for the time of the satellite images acquisition using oceanographic data and run-up formulations. The measured and estimated shoreline positions were then compared with the extracted SDS. The overall accuracy is good, with errors about 5 m RMSE, supporting the application of the used methodology to define shoreline dynamics and evolution at challenging environments, as mesotidal exposed and dynamic beaches.

https://doi.org/10.2112/SI95-200.1

Jacob, J., Correia, C., Torres, A.F., Xufre, G., Matos, A., Ferreira, C., Reis, M.P., Caetano, S., Freitas, C. S., Barbosa, A.B., Cravo, A. (2020). Impacts of decommissioning and upgrading urban wastewater treatment plants on the water quality in a she

Jacob, J., Correia, C., Torres, A.F., Xufre, G., Matos, A., Ferreira, C., Reis, M.P., Caetano, S., Freitas, C. S., Barbosa, A.B., Cravo, A

Ria Formosa is a productive coastal lagoon, located on the south coast of Portugal, and represents the largest national producer of shellfish bivalves (ca. 90% production). This ecosystem is subjected to various anthropogenic pressures, including the discharge of urban wastewater treatment plants (UWWTP), which impacts the lagoon water quality. This study aimed to assess the impact of alterations in the functioning of two UWWTP on the water quality of Ria Formosa, based on chemical variables, phytoplankton composition (including potential harmful species) and faecal contamination. During the period September 2018 - October 2019, water sampling was conducted along dominant longitudinal gradients of the effluent dispersion from the discharge point (1-2 km), for two sites: a decommissioned (OP) and a modified (FO) UWWTP. After modification, the later started receiving a higher influent volume (ca. 40%), under an innovative technology system (biological treatment in aerobic granular sludge). Based on chemical water quality variables, phytoplankton and indicators of faecal contamination, a significant improvement along the longitudinal gradient from the discharge point was observed after OP decommissioning. This improvement was fast, being detected two months after decommissioning, positively affecting areas used as shellfish farming grounds. However, distribution patterns of bacteriological indicators and regular shellfish harvesting interdictions suggested an alternative source of faecal contamination after OP decommissioning. At FO, both chemical variables and bacteriological indicators of faecal contamination revealed a slower improvement, only six-months after the UWWTP alteration. Before that, increased and highly variable ammonium, chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton abundances and Escherichia coli densities, revealed an unstable phase. Overall, a lower water quality at FO in respect to OP reflected not only a higher effluent volume but also more restricted water circulation for the former.

https://doi.org/10.2112/SI95-009.1

Lopez-Ruiz, A., Garel, E., Ferreira, O. (2020). The Effects of High River Discharges on the Morphodynamics of the Guadiana ebb-tidal delta, Journal of Coastal Research 95 (SI1), 558-562. DOI: 10.2112/SI95-109.1

Lopez-Ruiz, A., Garel, E., Ferreira, O.

This work analyses the role of high river discharges upon the morphodynamics of an ebb-tidal delta at a jettied inlet (the Guadiana river mouth, at the southern border between Portugal and Spain). The analysis is performed using a numerical model to simulate the effects of synthetic single high river discharge events with return periods ranging from 3 to 670 years. This model was calibrated and validated both for hydro- and morphodynamics. Results show that the area with mobile sediment over the delta varies strongly with the magnitude of the river discharge. Events peaking over 7,500 m3/s produce significant bathymetric variations at the delta, including scouring of the inlet channel, along with the offshore migration and volumetric growth of the outer shoal. Observations have indicated that the delta does not recover from these sudden morphological changes. However, the recent strong river flow regulation by dams has limited the maximum river discharges to 2,500 m3/s. Such vanishing of unusually high discharge events has affected both the short-term and long-term morphodynamics of the Guadiana ebb-tidal delta.

https://doi.org/10.2112/SI95-109.1

Kupfer, S., Ferreira, Ó., Costas, S. (2020). Assessment of Overwash-induced Flooding at Two Beaches along the Southwest Algarve, Portugal, Journal of Coastal Research, SI95,484-489. DOI: 10.2112/SI95-094.1

Kupfer, S., Ferreira, Ó., Costas, S.

At the Algarve south coast overwash-induced floods are a frequent and destructive phenomenon. In this study return periods for overwash potentials are estimated for two beaches located at the southwest coast of the Algarve (Carvoeiro and Salema) based on runup calculations for the period 1995-2017 after applying two well validated empirical formulations. Results show that overwash potentials are high even for small return periods. Additionally, the suitability of two different indicators (overwash potential and overwash depth) has been tested to represent the flood extent. Results suggest that the flood extent derived from the overwash depth presents several limitations and cannot realistically represent observations, while the flood extent given by the overwash potential (using a simple bathtub approach) fairly represents the overwash-induced flood, even though it can over/underestimate the flood extent for gentle/steep inland slopes. Flood extents derived from the overwash potential, for return periods of 10- and 100-year, show that occupied areas are potentially flooded for both return periods. It is therefore necessary to define appropriate adaptation measures for both beaches, preferably based on detailed risk assessment.

https://doi.org/10.2112/SI95-094.1

Oliveira, S., Moura, D., Boski, T. (2020). The evolution of the European framework for coastal management linked to new environmental challenges. The Portuguese case. Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, 20 (1). http:// www.aprh.pt/rgci/pdf/rgc

Oliveira, S., Moura, D., Boski, T.

The sharing of space by various human activities leading to social conflicts and threats to ecosystems, alongside increased awareness of the threats to coastal zones has created the need to legislate on coastal planning and integrated management by developing international guidelines. A new management challenge has emerged due to climate change that had not previously been considered in legislation or policies. Therefore, the European tools and frameworks applied in Portugal, their implementation and effectiveness will be analysed. Extensive bibliographic data was analysed including EU directives and policies, and Portuguese governmental documents from national to a municipal level. We found that all the European Union guidelines and frameworks are being implemented in the Portuguese Governmental planning and are very well substantiated, whereas the base of all land management instruments (IGT), have a questionable implementation, mainly due to the number of entities involved and the long implementation process.

http:// www.aprh.pt/rgci/pdf/rgci-n213_Oliveira.pdf

Kumar, M., Boski, T., González-Vila, F. J., de la Rosa, J. M., González-Pérez, J. A. (2020b). Discerning natural and anthropogenic organic matter inputs to salt marsh sediments of Ria Formosa lagoon (South Portugal). Environmental Science and Pollution

Kumar, M., Boski, T., González-Vila, F. J., de la Rosa, J. M., González-Pérez, J. A.

Sedimentary organic matter (OM) origin and molecular composition provide useful information to understand carbon cycling in coastal wetlands. Core sediments from threors’ Contributionse transects along Ria Formosa lagoon intertidal zone were analysed using analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) to determine composition, distribution and origin of sedimentary OM. The distribution of alkyl compounds (alkanes, alkanoic acids and alkan-2-ones), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lignin-derived methoxyphenols, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), steranes and hopanes indicated OM inputs to the intertidal environment from natural—autochthonous and allochthonous—as well as anthropogenic. Several n-alkane geochemical indices used to assess the distribution of main OM sources (terrestrial and marine) in the sediments indicate that algal and aquatic macrophyte derived OM inputs dominated over terrigenous plant sources. The lignin-derived methoxyphenol assemblage, dominated by vinylguaiacol and vinylsyringol derivatives in all sediments, points to large OM contribution from higher plants. The spatial distributions of PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) showed that most pollution sources were mixed sources including both pyrogenic and petrogenic. Low carbon preference indexes (CPI > 1) for n-alkanes, the presence of UCM (unresolved complex mixture) and the distribution of hopanes (C29–C36) and steranes (C27–C29) suggested localized petroleum-derived hydrocarbon inputs to the core sediments. Series of LABs were found in most sediment samples also pointing to domestic sewage anthropogenic contributions to the sediment OM.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09235-9

Tilstone, G., Dall’Olmo, G., Hieronymi, M., Ruddick, K., Beck, M., Ligi, M., Costa, M., D’alimonte, D., Vellucci, V.,Vansteenwegen, D., Astrid, B., Wiegmann, S., Kuusk, J., Vabson, V., Ansko, I., Vendt, R., Donlon, C., Casal, T. (2020). Field intercompar

Tilstone, G., Dall’Olmo, G., Hieronymi, M., Ruddick, K., Beck, M., Ligi, M., Costa, M., D’alimonte, D., Vellucci, V., Vansteenwegen, D., Astrid, B., Wiegmann, S., Kuusk, J., Vabson, V., Ansko, I., Vendt, R., Donlon, C., Casal, T.

A field intercomparison was conducted at the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea, from 9 to 19 July 2018 to assess differences in the accuracy of in- and above-water radiometer measurements used for the validation of ocean colour products. Ten measurement systems were compared. Prior to the intercomparison, the absolute radiometric calibration of all sensors was carried out using the same standards and methods at the same reference laboratory. Measurements were performed under clear sky conditions, relatively low sun zenith angles, moderately low sea state and on the same deployment platform and frame (except in-water systems). The weighted average of five above-water measurements was used as baseline reference for comparisons. For downwelling irradiance ( Ed ), there was generally good agreement between sensors with differences of <6% for most of the sensors over the spectral range 400 nm–665 nm. One sensor exhibited a systematic bias, of up to 11%, due to poor cosine response. For sky radiance ( Lsky ) the spectrally averaged difference between optical systems was <2.5% with a root mean square error (RMS) <0.01 mWm−2 nm−1 sr−1. For total above-water upwelling radiance ( Lt ), the difference was <3.5% with an RMS <0.009 mWm−2 nm−1 sr−1. For remote-sensing reflectance ( Rrs ), the differences between above-water TriOS RAMSES were <3.5% and <2.5% at 443 and 560 nm, respectively, and were <7.5% for some systems at 665 nm. Seabird-Hyperspectral Surface Acquisition System (HyperSAS) sensors were on average within 3.5% at 443 nm, 1% at 560 nm, and 3% at 665 nm. The differences between the weighted mean of the above-water and in-water systems was <15.8% across visible bands. A sensitivity analysis showed that Ed accounted for the largest fraction of the variance in Rrs , which suggests that minimizing the errors arising from this measurement is the most important variable in reducing the inter-group differences in Rrs . The differences may also be due, in part, to using five of the above-water systems as a reference. To avoid this, in situ normalized water-leaving radiance ( Lwn ) was therefore compared to AERONET-OC SeaPRiSM Lwn as an alternative reference measurement. For the TriOS-RAMSES and Seabird-HyperSAS sensors the differences were similar across the visible spectra with 4.7% and 4.9%, respectively. The difference between SeaPRiSM Lwn and two in-water systems at blue, green and red bands was 11.8%. This was partly due to temporal and spatial differences in sampling between the in-water and above-water systems and possibly due to uncertainties in instrument self-shading for one of the in-water measurements.

https://doi. org/10.3390/rs12101587

Rodrigues, M., Cravo, A., Freire, P., Rosa, A., Santos, D. (2020). Temporal assessment of the water quality along an urban estuary (Tagus estuary, Portugal). Marine Chemistry, 223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2020.103824

Rodrigues, M., Cravo, A., Freire, P., Rosa, A., Santos, D.

Understanding the natural dynamics of estuaries and their response to changes in the human-related or climatic drivers is fundamental to guarantee their environmental quality. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the water quality dynamics in an urban estuary, the Tagus estuary (Portugal), across different temporal scales. This estuary supports diverse uses and activities and its ecological value is well recognized. Three field campaigns were performed covering distinct seasons (Spring, Summer and Autumn – 2018). Physical, chemical and biological data were measured along the estuary. The acquired data was then integrated into a set of indicators and compared with historical data, to assess the long-term evolution of the water quality in the estuary. Results showed marked spatial gradients, typically with larger concentrations of chlorophyll a, nitrate and silicate upstream. Silicate and nitrate presented a conservative behavior. Ammonium and phosphate were not conservative, which suggests an anthropogenic pressure along the estuary. Seasonally, the highest nutrients and suspended solids concentrations were found in Autumn, after a period of rainfall, pointing out to the relevance of land runoff for material supply into the estuary. These conditions were favorable for phytoplankton development upstream, once chlorophyll a was maximum during this campaign (24 μg/L in the upper estuary). Regarding the nutrients classification, results suggest that the upper estuary is at risk with a “Medium” status. The middle and downstream areas presented a “High” status, with the exception of the middle-right margin that is also at risk (“Medium” status). The assessment of the historical data suggests that high loads of nutrients have been reaching the Tagus estuary over time, with a decreasing trend in recent years. The trophic index (TRIX) suggests a “Moderate” trophic status in the middle and upstream areas of the estuary. As for nutrients, a “Poor” classification was obtained in the middle-right margin of the estuary, mainly due to ammonium concentrations, confirming an intensification of anthropogenic pressure at this site. Similarly to the nutrients status, TRIX suggests some improvement of the water quality in the Tagus estuary in recent years compared to the 1980s. These results provide further insight regarding the water quality dynamics in the Tagus estuary and are useful to support management.

10.1016/j.marchem.2020.103824

El-Guendouz, S., Aazza, S., Dandlen, S.A., Majdoub, N., Lyoussi, B., Raposo, S., Gomes, V., Bankova, V., Popova, M., Antunes, D., Miguel, M.G. (2020). Natural antioxidants in emulsions O/W. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 75 (9-10): 319- 325. https://d

El-Guendouz, S., Aazza, S., Dandlen, S.A., Majdoub, N., Lyoussi, B., Raposo, S., Gomes, V., Bankova, V., Popova, M.,
Antunes, D., Miguel, M.G.

This study compared the capacity of propolisextract (PE) and thyme waste extract (TWE) to prevent theoxidation of oil in water (O/W) emulsion, as well as theirimpact on emulsion apparent viscosity (AV) in the presenceof wheat germ and almond oils as lipid phase. For this,central composite design (CCD) and principal componentanalysis (PCA) were performed. Oxidation process wasmonitored by evaluating the formation of primary and sec-ondary lipid oxidation products, at the same time the AVbehavior was determined evaluating consistency index andflow behavior index. The results revealed that the increase of PE% and TWE% decreases TBARS (Thiobarbituric AcidReactive Substances) and hydroperoxides formation. Vis-cosity increases with the rise of TWE% over (0.04%),whereas lower concentrations of PE% decreases it. Thoseresults have been confirmed in the PCA analysis. TWEshowed higher resistance to oxidation, although PE wasmore effective as antioxidant than TWE.

https://doi.org/10.1515/ZNC-2020-0003

Duarte Pinto, V., Martins, C., Rodrigues, J., Pires Rosa, M. (2020) Improving access to greenspaces in the Mediterranean city of Faro. Aims environmental science, 7(3), 226-246 (21), doi: 10.3934/environsci.2020014

Duarte Pinto, V., Martins, C., Rodrigues, J., Pires Rosa, M. 

Green infrastructure has received increasing attention in urban strategies in a sustainable and resilience context, since greenspaces provide diverse ecosystem services. Green roofs can be a form of compensating the loss of ecosystem services and biodiversity in urban areas, contribute to safe access to greenspaces, which is important in times of social isolation, due to viral pandemics, and can guarantee self-reliance food. Thus, this urban measure should be integrated in urban planning and management, by using urban indicators associated with citizens access to greenspaces. Hence, we study pedestrian accessibility to green areas and propose an urban solution to improve access to greenspaces. The assessment is developed using indicators related to the citizens living in the surroundings of green areas and the residential buildings that exist in these areas; the residents living in potential green buildings or blocks with private green roofs and the potential green buildings with private green roofs. The ideal standard distances were considered to analyze the proximity of green areas to the dwellings of residents. We used GIS for the assessment of distances over the pedestrian network. The results indicate the necessity of building green roofs through the private sector. The developed indicators provide an important contribution to the municipal management in the definition of criteria for the urban location of green roofs to promote better access to ecosystem services.

10.3934/environsci.2020014

Domingues, R.B., Carmo, C. (2020). Orthorexia nervosa in yoga practitioners: relationship with personality, attitudes about appearance, and yoga engagement, Eating and Weight Disorders, 1590-1262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519- 020-00911-w

Domingues, R.B., Carmo, C.

Purpose
Disordered eating symptoms and a high prevalence of orthorexia nervosa can be found in yoga practitioners. Given that yoga is increasingly used as a complementary treatment for eating disorders (ED), understanding the relationship between yoga practice and the development of disordered eating is crucial to guide treatment recommendations. The goal of this work is, therefore, to study the relationships between orthorexia nervosa (ON) and potential risk factors for ON, in an international sample of experienced yoga practitioners.

Method
An online questionnaire that included several psychometric instruments was responded by 469 yoga practitioners. Instruments used were the Teruel orthorexia scale, Yoga immersion scale, Passion scale, Frost multidimensional perfectionism scale, Self-discipline scale of NEO-PI-R, Drive for thinness scale of EDI, and Beliefs about appearance scale. Descriptive statistics, correlational analysis and multiple regression were used to evaluate relationships between ON and the other variables.

Results
The main predictors of orthorexia nervosa were the drive for thinness and a healthy orthorexia, suggesting that, like in anorexia and bulimia, orthorexic individuals are also concerned with food quantity and physical appearance, rather than just food quality.

Conclusions
The potential effects of yoga on eating behaviours and attitudes of long-term practitioners, particularly the high prevalence of orthorexia nervosa and the concern for physical appearance, should be taken into consideration when using yoga as prevention or treatment for eating disorders.

Level of evidence
Level V, descriptive cross-sectional study.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519- 020-00911-w

Sroczyńska, K., Williamson, T. J., Claro, M., González-Pérez, J. A., Range, P., Boski, T., Chícharo, L. (2020). Food web structure of three Mediterranean stream reaches along a gradient of anthropogenic impact. Hydrobiologia, 847(10), 2357–2375. https:/

Sroczyńska, K., Williamson, T. J., Claro, M., González-Pérez, J. A., Range, P., Boski, T., Chícharo, L.

Anthropogenic impact can alter food web structure through changes in species interactions. In this study, we explored the food web of three Mediterranean stream reaches (two seasonal and one permanent) along an anthropogenic impact gradient to test the hypothesis that increasing impact simplifies food webs. To test this, we applied the isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) niche concept to compare reaches using isotopic metrics (isotopic richness, divergence, dispersion, evenness, and redundancy). The isotopic indices were useful to identify differences in food web architecture among the three reaches. The least impacted site had the highest isotopic richness, dispersion, and isotopic redundancy, suggesting higher ecological resilience at this site. The effect of disturbance in the remaining two sites was masked by the presence of invasive crayfish, which increased isotopic divergence and was responsible for higher food-chain length in the most impacted reach, but not in the moderately impacted reach. Consumers displayed generalistic feeding habits, with Bayesian mixing models indicating that they relied primarily on a mixture of periphyton, other macroinvertebrates, and to a lesser extent, detritus. Some taxa displayed changes in their dietary habitats depending on the site, indicating that the same type of taxa fed on distinct foods at each stream reach.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-020-04263-5

El Mahrad, B., Abalansa, S., Newton, A., Icely, J.D., Snoussi, M., Kacimi, I. (2020b). Social-Environmental Analysis for the Management of Coastal Lagoons in North Africa. Frontiers in Environmental Science 8:37. https://doi.org/10.3389/ fenvs.2020.0003

El Mahrad, B., Abalansa, S., Newton, A., Icely, J.D., Snoussi, M., Kacimi, I. 

This study provides an overview of 11 lagoons in North Africa, from the Atlantic to the Eastern Mediterranean. Lagoons are complex, transitional, coastal zones providing valuable ecosystem services that contribute to the welfare of the human population. The main economic sectors in the lagoons included fishing, shellfish harvesting, and salt and sand extraction, as well as maritime transport. Economic sectors in the areas around the lagoons and in the watershed included agriculture, tourism, recreation, industrial, and urban development. Changes were also identified in land use from reclamation, changes in hydrology, changes in sedimentology from damming, inlet modifications, and coastal engineering. The human activities in and around the lagoons exert multiple pressures on these ecosystems and result in changes in the environment, affecting salinity, dissolved oxygen, and erosion; changes in the ecology, such as loss of biodiversity; and changes in the delivery of valuable ecosystem services. Loss of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and seafood affect human populations that live around the lagoons and depend on them for their livelihood. Adaptive management frameworks for social–ecological systems provide options that support decision makers with science-based knowledge to deliver sustainable development for ecosystems. The framework used to support the decision makers for environmental management of these 11 lagoons is Drivers–Activities–Pressures–State Change–Impact (on Welfare)–Responses (as Measures).

https://doi.org/10.3389/ fenvs.2020.00037

Cai, H., Zhang, P., Garel, E., Matte, P., Hu, S., Liu, F., Yang, Q. (2020). A novel approach for the assessment of morphological evolution based on observed water levels in tide-dominated estuaries. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 24, 1871–1889. DOI

Cai, H., Zhang, P., Garel, E., Matte, P., Hu, S., Liu, F., Yang, Q. 

Assessing the impacts of both natural (e.g. tidal forcing from the ocean) and human-induced changes (e.g. dredging for navigation and land reclamation) on estuarine morphology is particularly important for the protection and management of the estuarine environment. In this study, a novel analytical approach is proposed for the assessment of estuarine morphological evolution in terms of tidally averaged depth on the basis of the observed water levels along the estuary. The key lies in deriving a relationship between wave celerity and tidal damping or amplification. For given observed water levels at two gauging stations, it is possible to have a first estimation of both wave celerity (distance divided by tidal travelling time) and tidal damping or amplification rate (tidal range difference divided by distance), which can then be used to predict the morphological changes via an inverse analytical model for tidal hydrodynamics. The proposed method is applied to the Lingdingyang Bay of the Pearl River Estuary, located on the southern coast of China, to analyse the historical development of the tidal hydrodynamics and morphological evolution. The analytical results show surprisingly good correspondence with observed water depth and volume in this system. The merit of the proposed method is that it provides a simple approach for understanding the decadal evolution of the estuarine morphology through the use of observed water levels, which are usually available and can be easily measured.

DOI: 10.5194/hess-24-1871-2020

 

Gonçalves, J.M., Rocha, T., Mestre, N.C., Fonseca, T.G., Bebianno, M.J. (2020). Assessing cadmium-based quantum dots effect on the gonads of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Marine Environmental Research 156, 104904. http://dx.doi.org/10.101

Gonçalves, J.M., Rocha, T., Mestre, N.C., Fonseca, T.G., Bebianno, M.J.

This study assesses the sex-specific effects induced by CdTe QDs, on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in comparison to its dissolved counterpart. A 14 days exposure to CdTe QDs and dissolved Cd was conducted (10 μg Cd L-1), analysing Cd accumulation, oxidative stress, biotransformation, metallothionein and oxidative damage in the gonads. Both Cd forms caused significant antioxidant alterations, whereby QDs were more pro-oxidant, leading to oxidative damage, being females more affected. Overall, biochemical impairments on gonads of M. galloprovincialis demonstrate that the reproductive toxicity induced by CdTe QDs in mussels are sex-dependent and mediated by oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. It is crucial to acknowledge how gametes are affected by metal-based nanoparticles, such as Cd-based QDs. As well as understanding the potential changes they may undergo at the cellular level during gametogenesis, embryogenesis and larval development potentially leading to serious impacts on population sustainability and ecosystem health.

10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.104904

Domingues, R.B., Gonçalves, G. (2020). Assessing environmental attitudes in Portugal using a new short version of the Environmental Attitudes Inventory, Current Psychology, 39, 629-639. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9786-x

Domingues, R.B., Gonçalves, G.

Most environmental problems are caused and/or enhanced by human behaviour; thus, it is crucial to understand environmental attitudes that underlie individual’s behaviour towards the environment. In Portugal, a highly vulnerable region to environmental change and serious local-scale natural hazards, environmental attitudes have never been systematically addressed. Therefore, the main goal of this study is to evaluate environmental attitudes in a Portuguese sample using the most appropriate short version of Milfont & Duckitt’s Environmental Attitudes Inventory (Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(1) 80–94, 2010). Reliability and validity analyses showed that the 36-item version of the Environmental Attitudes Inventory (EAI-36) was more adequate than the 24-item version. Using EAI-36, preservation and utilisation emerged as orthogonal dimensions, forming the vertical structure of environmental attitudes, and were negatively and moderately correlated in the Portuguese sample, expressing an ecocentric viewpoint. Mean scores for the first- and second-order factors were similar to values from other developed countries. Differences in age, gender and study area were found, with older participants, women and individuals from the natural sciences showing higher levels on preservation and lower on utilisation.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9786-x

Galparsoro, I., Murillas, A., Pinarbasi, K., Sequeira, A.M., Stelzenmüller, V., Borja, Á., O´ Hagan, A.M., Boyd, A., Bricker, S., Garmendia, J.M., Gimpel, A., Gangnery, A.,Billing, S-L, Bergh, Ø., Strand, Ø., Hiu, Liu, Fragoso, B., Icely, J., Ren, J.,

Galparsoro, I., Murillas, A., Pinarbasi, K., Sequeira, A.M., Stelzenmüller, V., Borja, Á., O´ Hagan, A.M., Boyd, A.,
Bricker, S., Garmendia, J.M., Gimpel, A., Gangnery, A.,Billing, S-L, Bergh, Ø., Strand, Ø., Hiu, Liu, Fragoso, B., Icely, J.,
Ren, J., Papageorgiou, N., Grant, J., Tett, P.

Marine aquaculture is the most promising industry for ensuring future provision of seafood. Yet, the worldwide growth and expansion of this industry have been slower than expected, calling for the identification of environmentally suitable sites while accounting for all factors that could constrain or benefit its establishment. Here, we determine the main obstacles and risks hindering the growth and expansion of marine aquaculture, as well as the needs and recommendations to overcome such constraints. Our analysis is based on results obtained from a consultation process held in 16 study sites located around the world with the participation of 614 stakeholders representing the research community, aquaculture industry, government, conservation groups, and education and fishermen associations. A high level of commonality exists in the main issues hindering aquaculture growth and expansion in coastal, off‐the‐coast and offshore aquaculture with most being attributed to interactions with other maritime activities, including conflicts with other users and administrative procedures, including licensing. Critical needs for improved management and expansion of the aquaculture industry are related to planning and management of developments and technological advances, with economic and market needs featuring to a lesser extent. Key procedures recommended to assist further aquaculture growth are the standardisation and simplification of regulatory frameworks, improvement of governance, and the adoption of participatory processes to facilitate meaningful and productive stakeholder engagement. We strongly recommend stakeholder participation to enhance insights on the full environmental and human dimensions of marine management and for implementation of ecosystem‐based marine spatial planning.

https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12422

Fonseca, A. L., Newton, A., Cabral, A. (2020). Local and meso-scale pressures in the eutrophication process of a coastal subtropical system: Challenges for effective management, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 107109, https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.ec

Fonseca, A. L., Newton, A., Cabral, A.

Natural and anthropogenic pressures drive coastal eutrophication worldwide, depending on the system's physical and biogeochemical dynamics in multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the complexity of this process is essential to support management efforts and sustainability. Nutrients load to the Bay of Santa Catarina Island (BSCI), an important area for mollusc aquaculture, fisheries and tourism in Brazil, were assessed to identify the pressures of the eutrophication process. An updated Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response framework was used to facilitate the understanding of the relationship between human activities and impacts on human welfare. Pressures from runoff and effluents from combined sources resulted in inputs of 1998 t N.year−1 and 155 t P.year−1 to the system. The watersheds were characterized as meso-active to eury-active for both N and P yields. In addition to the local anthropogenic pressures, meso-scale events, such as the seasonal influence of the Plata Plume River, act as an external source of nutrients, sometimes associated with harmful algae bloom events. The results show that eutrophication and its symptoms could impact 85% of the ecosystem services of the region. Management of eutrophication at BSCI requires integrated actions between the nine municipalities of the watershed, but there are obstacles in environmental legislation and political interest to promote it. This study provides the scientific basis for stakeholders and decision-makers to establish priorities and actions in coastal municipalities to minimize eutrophication.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2020.107109

Pinto, P., Oliveira-Junior, J. M. B., Leitão, F., Morais, M. M., Chícharo, L., Vaz, P., Delgado, S.M.A., Voreadou, C., Morales, E.A., Teodósio, M. A. (2020). Development of a metric of aquatic invertebrates for volunteers (MAIV): A simple and friendly

Pinto, P., Oliveira-Junior, J. M. B., Leitão, F., Morais, M. M., Chícharo, L., Vaz, P., Delgado, S.M.A., Voreadou, C., Morales, E.A., Teodósio, M. A.

Citizen science activities, involving local people in volunteer-supported and sustainable monitoring programs, are common. In this context, the objective of the present work was to develop a simple Metric of Aquatic Invertebrates for Volunteers (MAIV), including a user-friendly tool that can be easily accessed by volunteers, and to evaluate the efficiency of a volunteer monitoring program following an audit procedure. To obtain MAIV values, macroinvertebrate communities were reduced to 18 surrogate taxa, which represented an acceptable compromise between simplicity, efficiency, and reproducibility of the data, compared to the regular Water Framework Directive monitoring. When compared to results obtained with the National Classification System of Portugal, MAIV accurately detected moderate, poor, and bad ecological status. Thus, MAIV can be used by volunteers as a complement to the official monitoring program, as well as a prospective early warning tool for local problems related to ecological quality. Volunteers were students supervised by their teachers. Results obtained by volunteers were compared to results obtained by experts on macroinvertebrate identification to measure the efficiency of the procedure, by counting gains and losses on sorting, and identification. Characteristics of groups of volunteers (age and school level) did not influence significantly the efficiency of the procedure, and generally results of volunteers and experts matched.

https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030654

Lourenço, C.R., Nicastro, K.R., McQuaid, C.D., Krug, L.A., Zardi, G.I. (2020). Strong upwelling conditions drive differences in species abundance and community composition along the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Western Sahara. Marine Biodiversity, 50,

Lourenço, C.R., Nicastro, K.R., McQuaid, C.D., Krug, L.A., Zardi, G.I.

Upwelling strongly influences the composition and dynamics of coastal communities by affecting species abundances, recruitment, dispersal and distribution. Coastal upwelling areas are key model regions to study the responses of coastal species to climate change because they are characterized by cooler water conditions and experience lower warming rates than adjacent regions, making them effective ‘control’ or refuge sites. This is particularly true for the benthic species of rocky shores in upwelling areas because they are sedentary, inhabit the interface between marine and terrestrial habitats, are exposed to extremely severe and variable environmental conditions and often live near their tolerance limits. We sampled roughly 2000 km of the Atlantic coast of Morocco and Western Sahara to assess the influence of upwelling cells on patterns of diversity and abundance of northern African rocky shore species. We recorded 186 taxa, providing clarification of the distribution of 141 algae and documenting nine new species records for Morocco and Western Sahara. The results emphasize the influence of upwelling on the abundance and distribution of these organisms. The contrast between non-upwelling and upwelling areas highlights the direct and indirect importance of water temperature in shaping these communities, pointing to the consequences of large-scale warming. Such warming is likely to threaten intertidal species that already live close to their thermal tolerance limits and are not buffered by the effects of upwelling.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12526-019-01032-z

Teixeira, M. A. C., Argaín J. L. (2020). The dependence of mountain wave reflection on the abruptness of atmospheric profile variations, accepted for publication in the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 146, 729, https:// doi.org/10.

Teixeira, M. A. C., Argaín J. L.

It is known from geometric optics that a change in refractive index is potentially reflective if it occurs over scales much smaller than the wavelength of the incident waves. The limitations of this assumption for hydrostatic orographic gravity waves are tested here using linear theory and a method recently developed by the authors to evaluate the reflection coefficient, based on the wave drag. Two atmospheric profiles optimally suited to this method are adopted, the first with piecewise constant static stability (representative of a tropopause), and the second with constant wind speed near the surface, and a linearly decreasing wind aloft below a critical level (relevant to downslope windstorms). Both profiles consist of two atmospheric layers separated by a transition layer with controllable thickness, where the parameters vary continuously. The variation of the reflection coefficient between its maximum (for a zero‐thickness transition layer) and zero, as the ratio of the thickness of the transition layer to the vertical wavelength increases, is studied systematically. The reflection coefficient attains half of its maximum for a value of this ratio of about 0.3, but its exact variation depends on the jump in static stability between the two layers in the first profile, and the Richardson number at the critical level in the second. For a stronger contrast between the two layers, the reflection coefficient is larger, but also decays to zero faster for thinner transition layers. According to these results, most atmospheric profile features perceived as discontinuities are likely to have close‐to‐maximum reflection coefficients, and the variation of atmospheric parameters over a sizeable fraction of the troposphere can still lead to significant wave reflection. These results seem to hold quantitatively to a good degree of approximation in moderately nonlinear flow for the first atmospheric profile, but only qualitatively for the second one.

 

Abrogueña, J. B. R., Range, P., Cruz, W., Tentia-Lagumen, M. C., Chicharo, L. (2020). Fish communities and environmental variables during dry season in Pampanga estuary (Philippines). Regional Studies in Marine Science, 34. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.rsma

Abrogueña, J. B. R., Range, P., Cruz, W., Tentia-Lagumen, M. C., Chicharo, L. 

Baseline assessment of fish communities and selected environmental variables (salinity, water temperature, water transparency, current speed, total suspended solid, chlorophyll a) was conducted in Pampanga estuary (Philippines) during a specific dry season (April 2010). The aims were: (a) to examine the variations of fish diversity and community structure, in relation to neap and spring tides and estuary zones and; (b) to examine the influence of environmental variables on fish communities. Reconnaissance showed that salinity was measurable at 6.8 kilometers from the rivermouth, for the surface and mid-water layers, and at 15.9 kilometers for the bottom layers, indicating the occurrence of a salt wedge. Bottom salinity was used to establish the sampling stations, grouped into 3 zones (lower 1–3, middle 4–6, upper 7–9). Sampling of fish, using otter trawl, and measurement of environmental variables were done under four tidal conditions at each station (neap low and high tide; spring low and high tide). Neap tide showed low and homogenous horizontal salinity, higher temperature, slower current speed, high TSS and chlorophyll a, whereas, spring tide showed higher salinity, horizontal saline stratification, lower temperature, faster current speed, low TSS and chlorophyll a. A total of 330 fish were captured from 32 trawl samples, encompassing 20 families and 27 species. Number of species generally did not vary between neap (20) and spring tide (18), but showed a decreasing pattern from lower to the upper estuary. Only 36% of total species were shared between neap and spring tides. Fish abundance was significantly affected by neap and spring tide, and zonation, whereas fish biomass was solely affected by zonation. Arius manillensis was the most typifying species, suggesting high probability of encounter. Chlorophyll a, TSS, salinity and current speed have a significant influence on the variations of abundance, biomass and frequency of occurrence of particular fish species.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2020.101053

Cruz, J., Teodósio, M. A., Garrido, S., Ben-Hamadou, R., Chícharo, L., Ré, P., Santos, A. M. P. (2020). Plankton community and copepod production in a temperate coastal lagoon: What is changing in a short temporal scale? Journal of Sea Research, 157. h

Cruz, J., Teodósio, M. A., Garrido, S., Ben-Hamadou, R., Chícharo, L., Ré, P., Santos, A. M. P.

Coastal lagoons are often exposed to intense short-term environmental changes and strong anthropogenic pressures influencing zooplanktonic communities and production. However, most works focus on long-term temporal scales using monthly or seasonal sampling strategies. The present study analysed the structure of the mesozooplanktonic assemblages, the production (egg production rates) and physiological condition (RNA:DNA ratio) of the copepod Acartia clausi in a temperate coastal lagoon (Ria Formosa) during the summer, using an intensive sampling approach. Salinity was the main factor affecting the short-term variability of mesozooplankton composition, followed by tidal phase (ebb tides) and semilunar cycle (spring tides). There was a positive relationship between the abundance of Appendicularia and the cladoceran Penilia avirostris with the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, suggesting no deleterious effects. The egg production rate of A. clausi was influenced by salinity and ammonia concentration, with a positive correlation between the egg productivity and the macronutrient, showing a possible adaptation of this calanoid species. The RNA:DNA index was positively related to egg production rate, suggesting that it is a good proxy for the reproductive output of copepods, even in short-term periods. This study shows that different timescales need to be included in regular monitoring of planktonic assemblages in coastal lagoons in order to understand the influence of environmental and anthropogenic variables on marine organisms.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2020.101858

Tarasco, M., Martins, G., Gavaia, P. J., Bebianno, M, J., Cancela, M. L., Laizé, V. (2020). ZEB316: A Small StandAlone Housing System to Study Microplastics in Small Teleosts. Zebrafish 17 1: 18-26, http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ zeb.2019.1801.10.1089

Tarasco, M., Martins, G., Gavaia, P. J., Bebianno, M, J., Cancela, M. L., Laizé, V.

Many anthropogenic chemicals and plastic debris end up in the aquatic ecosystem worldwide, representing a major concern for the environment and human health. Small teleosts, such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), offer significant advantages over classical animal models and are currently used as first-line organisms to assess environmental risks associated with many aquatic toxicants. Toxicological studies require the use of inert materials and controlled conditions. Yet, none of the available commercialized systems is adequate to assess the toxic effect of microplastics, because they contain components made of plastic polymers that may release micrometric plastic particles, leach manufacturing compounds, or adsorb chemicals. The ZEB316 stand-alone housing system presented in this study is meant to be a cost-effective and easy-to-built solution to perform state-of-the-art toxicological studies. It is built with inert and corrosion-resistant materials and provides good housing conditions through efficient recirculation and filtration systems. Assessment of water parameters and fish growth performance showed that the ZEB316 provides housing conditions comparable to those available from commercial housing systems.

https://doi.org/10.1089/zeb.2019.1801

Lazarus, E.D., Davenport, K.L., Matias, A. (2020). Dynamic allometry in coastal overwash morphology. Earth Surface Dynamics, 8, 37-50. doi.org/10.5194/esurf-2019-39. https://www.earth-surf-dynam-discuss.net/esurf-2019-39/

Lazarus, E.D., Davenport, K.L., Matias, A.

Allometry refers to a physical principle in which geometric (and/or metabolic) characteristics of an object or organism are correlated to its size. Allometric scaling relationships typically manifest as power laws. In geomorphic contexts, scaling relationships are a quantitative signature of organization, structure, or regularity in a landscape, even if the mechanistic processes responsible for creating such a pattern are unclear. Despite the ubiquity and variety of scaling relationships in physical landscapes, the emergence and development of these relationships tend to be difficult to observe – either because the spatial and/or temporal scales over which they evolve are so great or because the conditions that drive them are so dangerous (e.g. an extreme hazard event). Here, we use a physical experiment to examine dynamic allometry in overwash morphology along a model coastal barrier. We document the emergence of a canonical scaling law for length versus area in overwash deposits (washover). Comparing the experimental features, formed during a single forcing event, to 5 decades of change in real washover morphology from the Ria Formosa barrier system, in southern Portugal, we find differences between patterns of morphometric change at the event scale versus longer timescales. Our results may help inform and test process-based coastal morphodynamic models, which typically use statistical distributions and scaling laws to underpin empirical or semi-empirical parameters at fundamental levels of model architecture. More broadly, this work dovetails with theory for landscape evolution more commonly associated with fluvial and alluvial terrain, offering new evidence from a coastal setting that a landscape may reflect characteristics associated with an equilibrium or steady-state condition even when features within that landscape do not.

https://www.earth-surf-dynam-discuss.net/esurf-2019-39/

Esteves, E., Aníbal, J. (2020). Sensory evaluation of seafood freshness using the Quality Index Method: a metaanalysis. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 337:108934. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108934

Esteves, E., Aníbal, J.

The quality index method (QIM) is a leading method of assessing the freshness (and thus quality) of seafood that is based on relatively few sensory attributes considered relevant. These characteristics are scored using a 0 to 3 demerit points' scale, the sum of which is designated the quality index (QI) and quantifies the specimens' lack of freshness. The linear relationship between QI and storage time allows for the estimation of remaining shelf-life. Moreover, QIM is deemed species-specific. Meta-analysis was carried to attest the species-specificity of QIM schemes or if, otherwise, biological, ecological, procedural and methodological parameters, alone or in combination, justify schemes' categorization. The variation among the QIM schemes was analyzed using random/mixed-effects models of 68 primary studies. The correlation coefficient associated with linear relationship between the QIM scores and storage time was the designated effect. This study is the first to use of meta-analysis to summarize QIM schemes developed since the inception of the method in the early 1980s. The initial random-effects meta-analysis model indicated that the correlation coefficients associated with QIM averaged 0.982 (95% CI: 0.978-0.986). The considerable remaining heterogeneity (Q = 152.06, p < 0.0008) was further investigated as a function of moderator variables. Several moderator variables, per se or in combination, namely seafood group (bluefish, whitefish, Selachii, cephalopods and crustaceans), storage procedure (ice, water, air, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging) and temperature (°C), family and habitat (marine and freshwater), and maximum number of demerit points in QIM were found to have significant effects (QM, 0.0002 < p < 0.0919) on correlation coefficients derived from QIM schemes. Notwithstanding, at this stage of the analysis none clearly justified the categorization of QIM schemes since substantial residual heterogeneity remained unexplained in almost every case and there were issues with influential studies. Then, in a mixed-effects meta-analysis of a subset of studies for whole specimens stored in ice, seafood groups and maximum number of demerit points were found to be significant moderators (QM, p = 0.0018 and p = 0.0173, respectively). Correlation coefficients were higher in studies developing QIM schemes for cephalopods compared to the other seafood groups and in studies with lower sum of demerit points. The potential issues with publication bias and influence analysis are discussed. We cannot rule out the species-specificity of QIM schemes that have been stated previously and that constitutes a relative advantage compared to other methods of assessment seafood freshness based on sensory analysis, particularly the EU grading scheme.

10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108934

Soares, C., Pacheco, A., Zabel, F., González-Goberña, E., Sequeira, C. (2020). Baseline assessment of underwater noise in the Ria Formosa. Marine Pollution Bulletin 150: 110731, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110731

Soares, C., Pacheco, A., Zabel, F., González-Goberña, E., Sequeira, C. 

The Ria Formosa is a sheltered large coastal lagoon located on the Atlantic South Coast of Portugal, that has been classified as a natural park since 1987. The lagoon hosts a diverse and abundant fish community and other species of commercial importance. Several economical activities are supported by shipping, and as such, vessel traffic within the Ria Formosa lagoon is very intense at some locations during particular seasons of the year, creating high levels of underwater noise. Recently, strong efforts are being made to turn the main inlet of the lagoon, the Faro-Olhão Inlet, a testing site for small scale tidal stream turbines, which will bring an additional source of underwater noise. Underwater noise can be one of a number of factors causing habitat degradation, as it can perturb fish behavior and cause physiological damage. Therefore, in order to comply with underwater noise pollution regulations, tidal energy technology developers are very interested in minimising the introduction of acoustic energy in the environment during the operation of their devices. Under the scope of project SCORE, which involved the deployment and operation of a floating tidal energy converter, this paper presents and discusses the first baseline noise monitoring performed at Ria Formosa. The acoustic data were collected in two occasions over several days, one in the winter and the other in the summer, in 2017. The obtained analysis results highlight the potential impact of the intense boat traffic in Ria Formosa, and the wide range of sound levels introduced in that ecosystem, and the high diurnal and seasonal variability.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110731

Schüler, L. M., Gangadhar, K. N., Duarte, P., Placines, C., Molina-Márquez, A. M., Léon-Bañares, R., Sousa, V.S., Varela, J., Barreira, L. (2020). Improvement of carotenoid extraction from a recently isolated, robust microalga, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (ch

Schüler, L. M., Gangadhar, K. N., Duarte, P., Placines, C., Molina-Márquez, A. M., Léon-Bañares, R., Sousa, V.S., Varela, J., Barreira, L.

In recent years, there has been increasing consumer interest in carotenoids, particularly of marine sustainable origin with applications in the food, cosmeceutical, nutritional supplement and pharmaceutical industries. For instance, microalgae belonging to the genus Tetraselmis are known for their biotechnologically relevant carotenoid profile. The recently isolated marine microalgal strain Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 is a fast-growing, robust industrial strain, which has successfully been produced in 100-m3 photobioreactors. However, there are no reports on total carotenoid contents from this strain belonging to T. striata/convolutae clade. Although there are several reports on extraction methods targeting chlorophytes, extraction depends on the strength of cell coverings, solvent polarity and the nature of the targeted carotenoids. Therefore, this article evaluates different extraction methods targeting Tetraselmis sp. CTP4, a strain known to contain a mechanically resistant theca. Here, we propose a factorial experimental design to compare extraction of total carotenoids from wet and freeze-dried microalgal biomass using four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol or tetrahydrofuran) in combination with two types of mechanical cell disruption (glass beads or dispersion). The extraction efficiency of the methods was assessed by pigment contents and profiles present in the extracts. Extraction of wet biomass by means of glass bead-assisted cell disruption using tetrahydrofuran yielded the highest amounts of lutein and β-carotene (622 ± 40 and 618 ± 32 µg g−1 DW, respectively). Although acetone was slightly less efficient than tetrahydrofuran, it is preferable due to its lower costs and toxicity.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-019-02273-9

Guerra, L., Veiga-Pires, C., González-Regalado, M. L., Abad, M., Toscano, A., Muñoz, J. M., Ruiz, F., Vidal, J.R., Cáceres, L.M., Izquierdo, T., Carretero, M.I., Pozo, M., Monge, G., Tosquella, J., Prudencio, M.I., Dias, M.I., Marques, R., Gómez, P., Ro

Guerra, L., Veiga-Pires, C., González-Regalado, M. L., Abad, M., Toscano, A., Muñoz, J. M., Ruiz, F., Vidal, J.R., Cáceres,
L.M., Izquierdo, T., Carretero, M.I., Pozo, M., Monge, G., Tosquella, J., Prudencio, M.I., Dias, M.I., Marques, R., Gómez,
P., Romero, V.

A multidisciplinar analysis of sediments collected in different environments of the Doñana National Park (Guadalquivir estuary, SW Spain) provides an overview of the textural, mineralogical and physico-chemical parameters that control the distribution of benthic foraminiferal tests in this Biosphere Reserve. These microorganisms are absent in the fine quartzitic sands that constitute the substrate of temporary ponds with brief hydroperiods located in the dune systems and spits, as well as in other ponds with low conductivities or hypersaline conditions located in the inner marshlands or near the Guadalquivir river banks. Dead benthic foraminifera are mainly found on phyllosilicate-rich, silty-clayey substrates. The taphonomic analysis of the main species (Ammonia tepida, Haynesina germanica, Trochammina inflata, Entzia macrescens) points to its deposit in situ. Cluster analysis permits to delimitate six foraminiferal assemblages. Cluster II (A. tepida + H. germanica) is the dominant assemblage in the central ponds and the margins of the main channels, while cluster IV (T. inflata + E. macrescens) is restricted to some ponds located on the high marsh and cluster VI (Ammonia beccarii + Quinqueloculina spp.) is abundant on external beaches. Tidal fluxes cause the transport of these last marine benthic species and some plaktonic forms both to the inner areas of the estuary and to these beaches.

https://doi.org/10.1007/ s41513-019-00116-w

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O CIMA é financiado pela Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) através da referência UIDP/00350/2020, com sede no Campus Universitário de Gambelas, Edifício 7,  8005-139 FARO PORTUGAL. Tel: 351 289 244 434, 351 289 800 100; E-mail: cima@ualg.pt (+ info)
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O CIMA é financiado pela Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) através da referência UIDP/00350/2020, com sede no Campus Universitário de Gambelas, Edifício 7,  8005-139 FARO PORTUGAL. Tel: 351 289 244 434, 351 289 800 100; E-mail: cima@ualg.pt
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